Plants

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Chapters 15 and 16
updated 2 years ago by chronicallyrara
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bio lab 162
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1

Root types

tap root: one main root. More common in eudicots

fibrous root: no primary roots. More common in monocots

2

Prop roots

areal root, adventitous

3

Storage Root

Storage of food and water

4

Pneumatophores

Above ground roots for gas exchange

  • Found more in wetland ecosystems
  • Allow oxygen to defuse into the soil
5

Strangling aerial root

roots sent by a parasitic tree to a host tree

6

Buttress Roots

Large roots that help support the tree

7

Monocot Root

Vascular bundles are arranged around a central pit

8

Eudicot Root

...

9

Modified Stems

  • Rhizomes
  • Bulbs
  • Stolons
  • Tubers
10

Rhizomes

Horizontal stems that grow below the soil

Ex ginger root

11

Bulbs

vertical shoot systems grow just below the soil

12

Stolons

Horizontal stems that grow on the soil surface

13

Tubers

Specialized for food and water storage

Ex: potato

14

Know about Edicot and Monocot stems and roots

...

15

Leaves

  • Above ground plant involved in photosynthesis
  • Consists of blade and petiole
16

Leaf classification

  1. Complexity: Simple, Compound, Doubly compound
  2. Venation pattern: Parallel, pinnate, palmate
  3. Leaf shape: pinnate or palmate
  4. Arrangement of leaves: Alternate, opposite or whorled
17

Maple Leaf

Simple

Lobe pattern: palmade

Palmade leaf arrangement

Opposite leaf arrangement

18

Modified Leaves

  1. Tendrils: Leaves used by plants to support its stems
  2. Spines: leaves modified for protection
  3. Reproductive leaves: Leaves that produce plantlet asexually
  4. Bracts: Leaves modified into colorful, petal-like structures
19

Plants tissues

Group of cells that form a common function

20

Plant tissue types

(Monocot leaf has all three tissue types)

Dermal tissue: Single layer of tightly packed cells forming outermost layer of non-woody plant parts

Vascular:

Ground :

21

Plant cell types

  1. Parenchyma: living cells w a thin and flexible primary cell wall but no secondary
  2. Collenchyma: Primary cell wall but no secondary. Thick but flexible. Ex celery
  3. Sclerenchyma: Inflexible cells with lignified thick cell walls; dead at maturity
22

Two types of plant growth

  1. InDeterminate: Keeps growing as long as it lives
  2. Determinate: Stops growing at maturity

Plants have both

23

Primary Vs Secondary Growth

  • Primary: Growth results in increased length, involves apical meristems
  • Secondary: Results in increased girth/thickness; involves lateral meristems
24

Are Liverworts sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?

Gametophyte dominant

haploid

Sporophyte gen is short lived and is dependent of the gametophyte gen for survival

25

Liverwort phylum

Marchantiophyta

26
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What is this?

Marchantia: gametophytes bearing gemmae cups

27
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What is this?

Marchantia: female gametophytes bearing the sporophyte generation

28
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What is this? What phylum?

Club moss

phylum Lycophyta

genus: Lycopodium

29

Are club moss gametophyte or sporophyte dominant?

Sporophyte dominant

diploid

30
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What is this?

Horsetail

phylum: Monilophyta

Genus: Equisetum

31

Are horsetails vascular or non-vascular?

Gametophyte or sporophyte dominate?

Seedless vascular

Diploid sporophyte is dominate

32

How do the horsetails reproduce?

Through haploid unicellular spores

33

Tap root

One main root. common in Eudicots

34

Fibrous root

No primary root. Common in Monocots

35

Tendril

Leaves used by plants to support its stems

36

Spines (leaf)

Leaves modified for protection

37

Reproductive Leaves

Leaves that produce plants asexually

38

Bracts

Leaves modified into colorful petal-like structures

39

Example of tendril plant

grapes, squash or melon family

40

Example of Bract plant

pointsettia

41

Example of reproductive leaf plants

sweet potato

42

Example of spine leafs

Cacti and roses

43

Parenchyma

Living cells with a thin flexible primary cell wall. No secondary cell wall

44

Collenchyma

Primary cell wall but no secondary. Example Celery

45

Sclerenchyma

Inflexible cells with lignified cell walls. Dead at maturity

46

Indeterminate plant growth

plant keeps growing as long as it's alive

47

Determinate plant growth

Stops growing at maturity

48

Primary growth

Growth results in increased length. Involves apical meristems

49

Secondary plant growth

Results in increased girth/thickness. Involves lateral meristems

50

Characteristics of Fungi

  • Eukaryotic
  • Heterotrophic
  • Cell wall of chitin
  • Hyphae and mycelium
  • Short lived diploid stage
51

Major Ecological roles of Fungi

Decomposers

Mutualistic association with many plants

Parasites of plants and animals

52

plasmogymy definition

Fusion of cytoplasm

53

Heterokaryotic definition

2 or more genetically distinct haploid nuclei per cytoplasm

54

Dikatyotic

2 genetically distinct haploid nuclei per cytoplasm

55

Karyogamy

Fusion of haploid nuclei

56

Phylum in Kingdom Fungi

  • Zygomycota
  • Ascomycota
  • Basidiomycota
  • Glomeromycota
57

Zygomycota characteristics

  • Coencitic
  • Produce zygosporangia
  • Include Many Molds
58

Example of Zygomycota

  • Black Bread mold ---> Rhizopus
  • Dung cannon ---> Pilobus
59

Common name for Rhizopus

Black bread mold

60

Common name for Pilobus

Dung Cannon

61

Common name for Ascomycota

Sac Fungi

62

Major Characteristics of Ascomycota

  • Uni and multicellular
  • Produce asci
  • Include some yeasts
63

Examples of Ascomycota

  • Cup fungus
  • Penicillium
  • Saccharomyces
  • Aspergillus
64

Basidiomycota Charateristics

  • Multicellular
  • produce basidia
  • Most of the mushrooms
65

Examples of Basidiomycota

  • Shelf fungus
  • Shaggy mane mushroom
  • Yeast
66

Coprinus common name

shaggy mane mushroom (what's the genus)

67

In the Coprinus life cycle, what are the basidiocarp?

Dikaryotic ( in the coprinus life cycle)

68
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Foliose lichen

69
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Crustose Lichen

70
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Fruticose Lichen

71
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...

72

Are zygospores sexual or asexual? Haploid, diploid or heterokaryotic.

Asexual reproduction

73

Are Zygomycota sporophytes haploid or diploid?

Diploid

74

Heterokariotic definition

Refers to cells where two or more genetically different nuclei share one common cytoplasm.

This is the stage after Plasmogamy, the fusion of the cytoplasm, and before Karyogamy, the fusion of the nuclei.

It is neither 1n nor 2n.

It is in the sexual reproductive cycle of fungal organisms.

75

Dikaryotic definition

Cells with two haploid nuclei

result of plasmogymy

76

Major characteristics of seedless vascular plants

  • True roots, leaves, and stems
  • Flagellated sperm and requires water for reproduction
  • Ligin coated vascular tissue
  • large height and size
  • sporophyte dominate
77

Kingdom Plantae Characteristics

  • Eukaryotic
  • Multicellular
  • Photoautotrophs
  • Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenes
  • Cell wall of cellulose
  • Alternation of generations
78

Kingdom plantae ecological roles

Primary producers

79

Example of gymnosperms

naked seeds

Conifers

Yews

Ginkos

80

Angiosperms

seeds encased in flower derived fruit

  • Monocots
  • Eudicots
81

Monocot examples

Corn

Lillies

grasses

82

Eudicot examples

Fruit trees

daisies

roses

geraniums

83

Nonvascular plants

gametophyte dominant

sporophyte grows on gametophyte

84

Seedless vascular plants

Sporophyte dominant

gametophytes are small and independent

85

Seedless vascular plants

sporophyte dominant

86

Heterosporous plants

produce two kinds of spores

  • Megaspores
  • Microspores
87

Megaspores

Large: become gametophyte female

88

Microspores

becomes male gametophyte

89

Nonvascular plant major characteristics

  • Lack login coated vascular tissue
  • No true root, leaves, or stems
  • Lack flowers and seeds
  • flagellated sperm
  • gametophyte dominate
90

Non Vascular Plant classifications

Marchantiophyta

Bryophyta

91
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Female gametophyte bearing archegonia

92

Seedless vascular classification

Lycophyta

Monilophyta

93

Seedless vascular plant characteristics

  • Lignin coated vascular tissue ---> Xylem and Phloem
  • true roots leaves and stems
94

Gymnosperm characteristics

  • Vascular tissue
  • seeds but no flowers or roots
95

Gymnosperm classification

Cycadophyta

Ginkophyta

Coniferophyta