(starches and sugars) are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. are the main energy source for living things. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.
(fats, oils, and waxes) are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms. can be used to store energy and form parts of biological membranes and warerproof coverings.
contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, caron , and phosphorus. they are polymers of nucleotides.
has three parts: a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.
store and transmit hereditary information. two kinds: DNA and RNA
monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose)
one kind of sugar, two kinds of sugar, multiple kinds of sugar
the process by which particles move from and area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.
the process by which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through speial protein channels.
the facilitated diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
solutions that have a higher concentratio os solute compared to another solution
solutions that have a lower concentration of solute compared to another solution.
the movement of materials against a concentration difference.
the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy.
a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds.
adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine
the base pairings of DNA that always go together
x-ray diffraction studies revealed the double helix structure of DNA
James Watson and Francis Crick
built a model that explained the structure of DNA
two strands of the double helix unzip forming replication forkds. new bases are added following the rules of base pairing. each new DNA molecule has one original strand and one new strand.
an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA
during replication DNA may be lost from the tips of chromosomes called this
the thing there is more of
the thing there is less of
only some things an get through
the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen.
pathways processes that require oxygen
pathways processes that occur without oxygen
the principal pigment in photosynthetic organisms. absorbs blue-violet and red light but reflects green.
saclike photosynthetic membranes that contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are arranged in stacks called grana.
the fluid portion outside of the thylakoids
process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches
photosynthesis formula and cellular respiration in reverse
6CO2 + 6H2O + energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2