Biology Exam

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1

carbohydrates

(starches and sugars) are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. are the main energy source for living things. Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes.

2

Lipids

(fats, oils, and waxes) are made mostly of carbon and hydrogen atoms. can be used to store energy and form parts of biological membranes and warerproof coverings.

3

Nucleic acids

contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, caron , and phosphorus. they are polymers of nucleotides.

4

nucleotide

has three parts: a five carbon sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

5

nucleic acids

store and transmit hereditary information. two kinds: DNA and RNA

6

monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides (starch, glycogen, cellulose)

one kind of sugar, two kinds of sugar, multiple kinds of sugar

7

diffusion

the process by which particles move from and area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration.

8

facilitated diffusion

the process by which molecules that cannot directly diffuse across the membrane pass through speial protein channels.

9

osmosis

the facilitated diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.

10

hypertonic

solutions that have a higher concentratio os solute compared to another solution

11

hypotonic

solutions that have a lower concentration of solute compared to another solution.

12

active transport

the movement of materials against a concentration difference.

13

passive transport

the movement of materials across the cell membrane without using cellular energy.

14

DNA

a nucleic acid made up of nucleotides joined into long strands or chains by covalent bonds.

15

adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine

the base pairings of DNA that always go together

16

Rosalind Franklin

x-ray diffraction studies revealed the double helix structure of DNA

17

James Watson and Francis Crick

built a model that explained the structure of DNA

18

DNA Replication

two strands of the double helix unzip forming replication forkds. new bases are added following the rules of base pairing. each new DNA molecule has one original strand and one new strand.

19

DNA polymerase

an enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA

20

telomeres

during replication DNA may be lost from the tips of chromosomes called this

21

solvent

the thing there is more of

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solute

the thing there is less of

23

semi-permeable

only some things an get through

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cellular respiration

the process that releases energy from food in the presence of oxygen.

25

aerobic

pathways processes that require oxygen

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anaerobic

pathways processes that occur without oxygen

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pigments

light-absorbing molecules

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chlorophyll

the principal pigment in photosynthetic organisms. absorbs blue-violet and red light but reflects green.

29

thylakoids

saclike photosynthetic membranes that contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are arranged in stacks called grana.

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stroma

the fluid portion outside of the thylakoids

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photosynthesis

process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches

32

photosynthesis formula and cellular respiration in reverse

6CO2 + 6H2O + energy = C6H12O6 + 6O2