Chapter 14: The Origin of Life and Chapter 15: Evolution- Evidence and Theory

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1

Spontaneous Generation

thought that living things could also arise from nonliving things

2

Adapt

adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions

3

Adaptive Advantage

a favorable trait that gives an organism an advantage

4

Fitness

a measure of an individual's hereditary contribution to the next generation
-more than living a long time, it means having an individual having offspring who later in life can produce offspring of their own

5

Coevolution

when two or more species have evolved adaptations to each other's influence

6

Vestigial

not fully developed in mature animals

7

Biogeography

dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants

8

Evidence of Evolution

Overproduction-not all organisms survive to maturity due to environmental limits
Genetic Variation-variations of phenotypes w/in a population
Struggle to Survive-competition for env. resources

9

Divergent Evolution

a process in which the descendants of a single ancestor diversify into species that each fir diff. parts of the environment

10

Convergent Evolution

the process when diff. species evolve similar traits

11

Darwin's Theories

modern organisms have a common ancestor based on similarities
ex: dolphins and whales

12

Lamarck

theory that aqui. traits are inheritted

13

Overproduction

not all organisms survive to maturity due to environmental limits

14

Genetic Variation

variations of phenotypes w/in a population

15

Struggle to survive

competition for env. resources
ex: food

16

Analogous Structures

have closely related functions but do not derive from the same ancestral structure

17

Homologous Structures

anatomical structures that occur in different species and that originated by heredity from a structure in the most recent common ancestor of the species

18

Natural Selection

favorable traits are more likely to be passed on

19

Artificial Selection

this process occurs when a human breeder chooses individuals that will parent the next generation

20

Acquired Trait

trait gained through life experience

21

Inherited Trait

genetic traits passed on
ex: blue eyes, brown hair, etc