Medical Terminology ch.14- endocrine system

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1

antagonistic

acting in opposition; mutually opposing

2

electrolytes

salts and minerals that conduct electrical impulses in the body

3

glucagon

hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that stimulates the liver to change stored glycogen to glucose

4

glucose

simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion

5

sympathomimetic

agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system, the division of the nervous system that increases "fight or flight" response

6

adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)

-targets adrenal cortex and promotes secretion of corticosteriods

-hypersecretion causes cushing disease

7

follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)

- targets ovaries to stimulate egg production, targets testes to stimulate sperm production

-hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation

8

growth hormone (GH)

-regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other bodily tissues

- hyposecretion causes dwarfism

-hypersecretion causes giantism

9

lutenizing hormone (LH)

-promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen

-promotes secretion of testosterone

10

prolactin (PRL)

-promotes lactation

-hypersecretion causes excessive mik production

11

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

-targets thyroid gland; stimulates secretion of thyroid hormones

12

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

- targets kidney and causes water reabsorption (water returns to blood)

13

oxytocin

-stimulates uterine contractions , initiates labor

- promotes milk secretion from mammary glands

14

calcitonin

-regulates calcium levels in the blood

-decreases the resorption of calcium from bones

15

thyroxine (T4)

triiodothyronine (T3)

-increases energy production from all food types

-increases rate of protein synthesis

16

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

- increases resorption of calcium from bone to blood

-increases calcium absorption and phosphate excretion

-small intestine - increases absorption of calcium and phosphate

17

glucocorticoids

-promote gluconeogenesis

-regulate metabolsim

-depresses immune responces

18

mineralcorticoids

-kidneys: increase blood levels of sodium and decrease blood levels of potassium in the kidneys

19

sex hormones

-responsible for womens libido after menopause

20

epinephrine and norepinephrine

-affects mimic sympathetic nervous system effects

21

glucagon

-raises the blood glucose level

22

insulin

-tissue cells- lowers blood glucose level by accelerating glucose transport

23

adreno

adrenalo

adrenal glands

24

calco

calcium

25

crino

secrete

26

gluco

glyco

glycoso

sugar

sweeteners

27

homeo

same, alike

28

kali

potassium

29

pancreato

pancreas

30

parathyroido

parathyroid glands

31

thymo

thymus gland

32

thyro

thyroido

thyroid gland

33

toxico

poison

34

-crine

secrete

35

-dipsia

thirst

36

-gen

forming

producing

origin

37

-toxic

pertaining to poison

38

-uria

urine

39

eu-

good

40

exo-

outside

41

poly

many

42

diabetes insipidus (DI)

disorder characterized by excessive thirst and excessive urination due to production of ADH

43

diuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

44

gestational diabetes

diabetes that develops during pregnancy

45

growth hormone (GH) disorders

pituitary gland edisorder that generally involves an odd secretion level of GH and commonly results from a pituitary tumor

46

acromeagly

enlargement of bones and extremities from hyperwsecretion of GH

47

dwarfism

hyposecretion of GH resultin gin extreme shortness in stature

48

giantism

hypersecretion of GH causing extreme heights

49

hirsuitism

excessive distribution of body hair

50

hypercalcemia

excess calcium in blood

51

hyperkalemia

condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal

52

hypervolemia

abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma in the body

53

hyponatremia

lower-than-normal level of sodium in the blood

54

insulinoma

tumor of the islets of langerhans of the pancreas, causing the excessive production of insulin and leading to hypoglycemia; also pancreatic tumor

55

neurofibromatosis (NF)

genetic disorder with multiple benign fibrous tumors that grow anywhere in the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, and and peripheral nervous system

56

obesity

abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20% or more of an individuals ideal body weight

57

panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

58

thyroid storm

crisis of unusual hyperthyroidism caused by the release of increased thyroid hormone in to the blood

59

virilism

masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

60

exophthalometry

measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in graves disease

61

A1C test

blood test used to diagnose and manage type one and two diabetes

62

fasting blood sugar (FBS)

test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hrs

63

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from blood

64

insulin tolerance test (ITT)

diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into the vein, causing severe hypoglycemia to assess growth hormone and cortisol reserve

65

thyroid function test (TFT)

test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function

66

total calcium test

test that measures blood calcium levels to detect bone and parathyroid disorders, malabsorption or an over active thyroid

67

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) scan

nuclear imaging procedure that combines a thyroid scan with an RAIU procedure to evaluate the structure and physiological functioning of the thyroid gland

68

parathyroidectomy

excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control disorders

69

thyroidectomy

excision of the entire thyroid gland

70

transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

endoscopic surgery to remova a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus

71

insulin injection therapy

lifelong therapy using a fine needle and syringe to inject insulin for controlling type 1 diabetes

72

insulin pump therapy

treatment for type one diabetes that uses a device that continuously delivers insulin through a catheter placed under the skin