Chapter 9: Fundamentals of Genetics

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1

Genetics

study of how traits are inherited

2

Heredity

how traits are passed down

3

Allele

Each of two or more alternative forms of a gene
-what Mendel(father of genetics, the guy with the pea plants) called 'factors'

4

Law of Segregation

states that a pair of factors is segregated/separated during the formation of gametes

5

Dominant

a trait that masks/dominates the factor for the other trait in the pair

6

Recessive

a trait that is masked/dominated by the factor for the other trait in the pair

7

Law of Independent Assortment

states that factors separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes

8

Homozygous

when both alleles of a pair are alike
ex: AA

9

Heterozygous

when the two alleles in the pair are different
ex: Aa

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Genotype

an organism's genetic makeup
ex: AaBB

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Phenotype

an organism's appearance
ex: Black fur, Big Ears

12

Incomplete Dominance

blend of Dom./Rec.
ex: Rr= pink

13

Codominance

both dom. alleles show, spotted-both show
ex: RW=red and white spotted (like the roan cow)