CCE 140 Exam 3

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Know the general principles of the scientific code of ethics:

Report results carefully and accurately, share results and methods openly, credit others, treat human and animal subjects well


List the main advantages of having a scientific code of ethics

Advance human knowledge, accurate and reproducible results


Piltdown Man – Charles Dawson

Discovered “new” fossils, one was a skull that appeared to be a missing link between humans and apes, 40 years later it was discovered the skull was modified (human skull with monkey jawbone and monkey teeth, chemically treated to look older)


Molecular transistors – Jan Hendrik Schön

would allow extremely small computer chips to be made, considered top achievement until discovered, contained the same graph, no records of his data, PhD revoked and fired


Vaccines and Autism – Andrew Wakefield

Claimed to link to Autism, altered medical histories, etc


What steps can be done to deter and detect fraud?

Peer review, replication from other scientists


Nuremburg Trials – Nazis

Experimenting on humans, found guilty of war crimes


Tuskegee Syphilis Study

Pretend to give free health care, with treatment versus nothing, 399 black men with syphilis and 201 without


How we now protect research subjects in modern research:

IRB: Institutional Review Board, IACUC: Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee


Understand the scientific method as a circular, ongoing process

Always goes full circle


Science in Health & Technology: 3 ways science has been used to make advances in each of these areas

Vaccines, Prosthetics, Antibiotics


Trophic Level:

An organism’s feeding status in a food web



selective absorption and storage of toxins


Bio magnification

Toxic burden of a large number of organisms at a lower trophic level is accumulated and concentrated by a predator at a higher trophic level


DDT after WWII

Caused reproductive disorders, weakened the shells of eggs, cause nervous system and immune system disorders in animals


Round-up ready seeds; impact on humans & Lake Erie

Able to be sprayed with weed killer (round up), goes into Lake and makes too much algae


PCB’s and the Sheboygan River AOC case study on legacy toxins

Contamination from industrial waste, Bio magnification from PCB’s


God vs. Science debate in Time Magazine (Collins vs. Dawkins), altruism

Collins was religion (God), Dawkins was science, altruism is going out of your way to help someone even though it hurts/inconveniences you


Know & describe the three ways Lewis said that science and magic could be twins

The ability to have science as a religion, their encouragement of lack of skepticism (credulity), and the quest for power


Be able to list at least 3 attributes of science that lends it validity and credibility

What is the source? What is the agenda? What kind of language does it use? Is there a money trail or passionate belief involved?


List several ways how to spot fake news

Considering the source, check the data, check biases, is it a joke


Know specifically what makes evidence in science reliable

Collected objectively and without bias, repeatable, honestly obtained


Variables are not confirmed; lack of a control

Multiple variables, selecting the wrong one


Reporting bias vs. confirmation bias

Not all cases are reported, seeking certain evidence over all


Self-limiting vs. regression to the mean

Times of when you collect data, ex: when a disease is at its worse


Contrast inferential statistics vs. descriptive statistics

Inferential: Data about populations obtained from samples, compare two or more samples with each other

Descriptive: Mean, median, mode, range, variance


Understand the importance of including specific statistical tests used in the Methods Section

The term “significance” means that an appropriate statistical analysis was completed


When does a scientist reject the Null Hypothesis?

When you accept the alternative hypothesis


Distinguish the difference between “p-value” and “Significance”

P value is initial value, significance is after. Depends on if the results are greater than or less than .05


Be able to take a given p-value and interpret it in light of the significance level to determine if the Null Hypothesis or Alternative Hypothesis should be rejected

more than .05: null is correct, less than: null is incorrect


Error bars embedded on bar charts indicate significant differences when comparing two groups

  • Error bars that overlap: no significant difference between two groups
  • Error bars that DO NOT overlap: yes significant difference between two groups