Unit 3 Urinary Week 1 Day 5 Part 2 of 3

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Fluids & Electrolytes
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1

Primary Function of electrolytes

  • Maintaining fluid balance
  • Contribute to acid-base regulation
  • Facilitate enzyme reactions
  • Neuromuscular reactions
2

Intravascular Compartment

Fluid inside a blood vessel

3

Intracellular Compartment

Fluid inside the cells

4

Extracellular Compartment

Fluid outside the cells

Blood, lymph, connective tissue, water, transcellular fluid

5

Third-Spacing

Fluid trapped in pericardium, pleural, peritoneal, or joint cavities

Not apparent until organ malfunction occurs.

High Risks:

Patients with an ischemic stroke

6

Edema

Fluid build up in interstitial space

7

What population is at biggest risk for fluid imbalances?

  • Surgical Patient
  • Wounds/Burns
  • Renal disorders
  • Patients with limited mobility
  • Medical treatments-IV fluids
    • Risk of overhydration
    • Risk of underhydration
  • Patients taking diuretics
    • Volume
    • Hypokalemia
    • Hyperkalemia
  • Increased insensible water loss due to:
    • Fever
    • Hyperventilation
    • Diarrhea
8

Solute

substance that is dissolved

Examples: Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+

9

Solvent

solution in which solute is dissolved

Example: water

10

Diffusion

  • Solute that spreads from area of higher concentration to lower concentration.
  • Permeable membrane vs selectively permeable membrane
11

Osmosis

  • the process of water movement across cell membranes from the less concentrated to the more concentrated solution.
  • Force that draws solvent from a less concentrated solute into a more concentrated solute to equalize concentration.
  • Permeable membrane vs selectively permeable membrane
12

Filtration

  • Movement of solute and solvents from higher pressure to area of lower pressure.
13

Isotonic

  • When the solutions on both sides of the selective permeable membrane have established equilibrium/ concentration.
  • Have the same osmolality as body fluids
  • Little osmosis occurs.
  • Examples:
    • 0.9% Normal Saline
    • Lactated Ringers
    • Blood
14

Hypotonic

  • Lower osmolality than body fluids
  • Examples:
    • 5% dextrose in water (D5W)
    • 0.45% NaCl
    • 0.33% NaCl
15

Hypertonic

  • Higher osmolality than body fluids
  • Examples
    • 10% dextrose in water
    • 5% dextrose in 0.9% saline
    • 5% dextrose in 0.45% saline
    • 5% dextrose in lactated Ringer's solution
    • Blood products
    • Albumin
    • Mannitol
16

Homeostasis

Balance within the body

17

Homeostasis-Fluid Compartments;
Intracellular fluid (ICF):

Within Cells
Constitutes largest portion of fluid weight
Contains Solutes such as O2, glucose, and electrolytes

18

Homeostatis-Fluid Compartments;
Extracellular fluid (ECF):

outside of cells
Interstitial (fluid surrounding the cells)
Lymph
Intravascular (within blood vessels)
Transcellular fluid: Cerebrospinal, pericardial, pleural, intraocular, biliary, peritoneal, synovial

19

Homeostasis-Hormonal Regulation: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAA system)

Decrease BF/BP to Kidneys
Renin production leads to Angiotensin I
Angiotensin I changes quickly to II
Angiotensin II causes vasoconstriction
Na+ and H2O retention

20

Homeostasis-Hormonal Regulation: ANP

Secreted by the Atrial Cells
In response to an increase in circulating blood volume
Acts as a diuretic
Causes Na+ loss and inhibits thirst

21

Homeostasis-Factors Affecting Fluid Balance: Fluid Intake

Kidneys: 1300 ml/day
Skin: 500 ml/day
Lungs: 500 ml/day
GI tract: 200 ml/day
=2500 ml/day

22

Deficiency in fluids or electrolytes:

  • substance must be replaced.
    • Food
    • Water
    • Treatment/ Therapy
23

Excess of fluids or electrolytes

substance must be excreted

24

Homeostasis: Adrenal glands

  • Secrete aldosterone aid by regulating sodium reabsorption in the kidneys
25

Homeostasis: Antidiuretic Hormone

Regulates the amount of water reabsorption by the kidneys

26

Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH)

  • is a condition in which the body makes too much antidiuretic hormone (ADH).
  • This hormone helps the kidneys control the amount of water your body loses through the urine.
  • SIADH causes the body to retain too much water.