Chapter 6 & 7: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

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1

Autotroph

makes own food (from the sun)
ex: plants

2

Heterotrophs

animals and other organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from the sun/inorganic substances

3

Photosynthesis

converts solar energy into chem. energy
-occurs in chloroplasts

4

Photosynthesis Formula

C6H12O6 + 6O2 <--energy + 6H2O + 6CO2

5

Cellular Respiration

process when cells make energy by producing ATP by breaking down organic compounds (ex glucose)

6

Cellular Respiration Formula

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -->energy + 6H2O + 6CO2

7

ATP

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

8

Lactic Acid Fermentation

pyruvic acid from glycolysis into lactic acid
ex: creates soreness in muscles when they don't get enough oxygen
-used to produce yogurt/cheese
-used to preserve/pickle vegetables

9

Alcoholic Fermentation

pyruvic acid from glycolysis is turned into ethanol (alcohol) and CO2 is released
ex: wine
yeast-->juice-->eats sugars-->CO2, Alcohol, 2 ATP

10

Glycolysis

a 6 carbon molecule is oxidized to produce two 3 carbon molecules of pyruvic acid and two molecules of ATP
6C --> 3C+3C + 2ATP
glucose --> 2 pyruvic acids + 2 ATP

11

Aerobic Respiration

cellular respiration that requires O2, takes place in mitochondria
-it creates 20 times more ATP than anaerobic resp.
-2 main Stages: Kreb Cycle, Electron Transport

1 Glucose--> glycolysis--> Kreb Cycle--> Electron transport
2 ATP + 34 ATP = 38 ATP

12

Anaerobic Respiration

occurs in the absence of O2, *no additional ATP made*
leads to 2 types of fermentation creating...
1) Lactic acid- no CO2 released
2) Alcohol - CO2 is released

13

Stroma

fluid, like the cytoplasm
where dark reactions occur

14

Thylakoid

made of chlorophyll
where light reactions occur

15

Chlorophyll

green pigment (reflects green, *absorbs other colors besides green)

16

Cartenoids

pigments that are red orange and yellow

17

Granum

stacked thylakoids

18

Light Reactions

chlorophyll absorbs solar energy to make ATP, occurs during the day or a full moon: it needs UV light
-happens in thylakoids

19

Dark Reaction

uses energy from light reaction (L.R) to make sugar
-happens in stroma

20

Calvin Cycle

a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP

21

Why is Photosynthesis necessary for all life?

1) initiates the food chain
2) gas exchange: CO2 -->O2 (necessary for aerobic organisms- needs O2)