CH 11 Aggression
intentional behaviour aimed at doing harm or causing pain to another person.
any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically present.
any behavior that intentionally harms another person who is physically absent
social learning theory
aggression is not an innate drive like hunger in search of gratification. People learn aggressive behaviors the same way they learn other social behaviors—by direct experience and by observing others.
having as one’s goal the harming of another;
uses inflicting harm as a means to some other end.
STUDY Albert Bandura social learning
adult harming clown doll, taught/modeled aggressive behavior to kid and then kid did
acts that harm another person through backbiting, spreading rumours or social exclusion.
The Evolutionary Approach to Aggression
argue that aggression is inherited because of its survival value—that is, it increased the individual’s chances of reproducing.
Hormonal Explanation of Aggression
attributes men’s higher aggressive tendencies to the male sex hormone testosterone.
Social roles and aggression
aggressive behaviour is regulated by male and female gender roles adopted in the process of socialisation
Alcohol and Aggression
can increase aggressive behaviour because it serves as a disinhibitor—it reduces one’s social inhibitions.
Pain, Discomfort, and Aggression
far more likely to act aggressively, such as heat and humidity, increases the likelihood of hostile and violent behaviour.
Frustration as a Cause of Aggression Frustration–aggression theory
states that the perception that you are being prevented from obtaining a goal can increase the probability of an aggressive response.
the feeling that you have less than what you deserve or less than people similar to you have can lead to aggressive behaviour.
Berkowitz and LePage presence of a violent object (1967)
participants angered in the presence of a gun administered more intense electric shock to their “victim” than those angered in the presence of a nonaggressive object such as a badminton racket.
Social learning theory
holds that we learn by observing others and imitating them. People, especially children, learn to behave aggressively by observing aggressive behaviour in adults and peers.
The Effects of Violence in the Media
the more violence on television observed by children, the greater the amount of violence they exhibit as teenagers and young adults. Exposure to violent media has also been shown to increase violent behaviour in adults.
Violent Pornography and Violence Against Women
Exposure to violent pornography increases acceptance of violence toward women.
General Aggression Model
aggression generally occurs only when several factors (i.e., personal characteristics, anger and situational influences) converge (social encounter integrates both person+situation effects on present internal state (includes emotional state, how one thinks, and reaction to stimulus(arousal)) influencing a decision which is either thoughtful or impulsive reaction to that social encounter)
serve as a deterrent to crime it must be both prompt and certain. Can model for kids so careful
Observational learning reduce aggression
exposure to non-violent role models
Catharsis and Aggression
The notion that “blowing off steam” relieves built-up aggressive energies and hence reduces the likelihood of further aggressive behaviour. Catharsis actually makes more aggressive
Anger management model
Identify cues that arouse anger, Learn to interpret situations in a de-escalating way, Learn relaxation techniques to calm down, Learn cognitive strategies for self-appeasement, Practice through role playing
Eliciting incompatible responses
The idea is to counteract anger by eliciting affective states and cognitions that are incompatible with anger. (listen to favourite song that is super happy)
Study by Lightdale and Prentice Anonymity and aggression (1994)
Participants had to play a video game in which they could attack their opponents by dropping bombs. Individuated grp(got individual info from participants) men were more likely than women to drop bombs
‘Hostile Attribution Bias’
The tendency to perceive ambiguous actions by others as indicating aggressive intent.
wanting to maintain the status quo as the best course of action