Chapter 5: Homeostasis and Transport

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1

Passive Transport

when substances can cross the cell membrane w/o any input of energy by the cell

2

Diffusion

the movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower conc.

3

Osmosis

the process when water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from an area of higher to lower conc.

4

Facilitated Diffusion

this process is used for molecules that cannot readily diffuese through cell memb. even when there is a concentration gradient across the memb.
-the movement of these kinds of molecules across the cell memb. are assisted by carrier proteins

5

Isotonic

Concentrations in and out of cell achieve equilibrium
-rate of water movement is the same
-net movement = 0 (Zero)

6

Hypertonic

concentration of solute molecules *outside* the cell is higher than concentration of solute inside the cell
-net movement of H2O is out of cell

7

Hypotonic

concentration of solute molecules *inside* the cell is higher than concentration of solute outside the cell
-net movement of H2O is into the cell

8

Ion Channels

transport ions from higher to lower conc.
transport ions like...
-Sodium
-potassium
-calcium
-chloride

9

Contractile Vacule

organelles that remove water

10

Turgor Pressure

the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall

11

plasmolysis

the cells shrink away from the cell walls and turgor pressure is lost
-this the reason that plants wilt

12

cytolysis

the bursting of cells

13

Active Transport

when cells must move materials from an area of lower conc. to an area of higher conc. or 'up' their conc. gradient
-requires a cell to expend energy

14

Sodium Potassium Pump

this protein transports Na+ ions and K+ ions up their concentration gradients
-To function normally, some animal cells must have a higher conc. of Na+ ions outside the cell and a higher conc. of K+ ions inside the cell--> this pump maintains these conc. differences

15

Endocytosis

the process when cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles, including other cells

16

Exocytosis

the process when a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the memb. to let the substance out of the cell