Chapter 4: Introduction to the Cell

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1

Hooke

made observation viewing dried cork, noticed small chambers which he calls cells

2

Leewenhoek

aka "Father of Microbiology"
-first microbiologist
-discovered bacteria from his teeth

3

Prokaryote

organisms that lack a membrane bound nucleus and membrane bound organelles

4

Eukaryote

organisms made up of one ore more cells that have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles

5

Cell Theory

1) all life = cells
2) basic unit of structure/function within lifeforms
3) all cells come from other preexisting cells

6

Organelles

sub-cellular structures

7

Cell Membrane

allows materials in/out of the cell
-made up of proteins and lipids; contains enzymes

8

Cytoplasm

gel like substance that makes up the empty space in the cell
made up of cytosol- the gel like substance

9

Nucleus

contains genetic code and controls functions of cells

10

Nucleolus

a small round body of protein in a cell nucleus

11

Mitochondria

generates energy for the cell

12

Ribosome

site of protein synthesis
translates RNA into proteins
catalyzes assembly of proteins

13

Endoplasmic Reticulum

a system of membranous tubes and sacs called cisternae
-like a highway in the cell
two types: Rough and Smooth

14

Rough ER

assists in protein/lipid making by transporting them
DNA -->RNA-->Ribosomes-->Proteins
exports proteins, insulin, antibodies

15

Smooth ER

builds lipids and helps detoxify poisons

16

Lysosomes

contains enzymes to help break down wastes in cells

17

Cytoskeleton

thin filaments and tubules for structure and allows movement
microscopic protein filaments

18

Cell Wall

Protective outer layer in plant cells

19

Chloroplasts

allow plants to do photosynthesis

20

Vacuole

storage areas for cell and very large in plant cells

21

Selective Permeability

A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.

22

SA:V ratio

As cell gets smaller, SA/V gets bigger and more can be exchanged. As SA gets bigger, ration gets smaller

23

Cell

alive
two types: plant and animal

24

Cell Differentiation

the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function

25

Cell Specialization

the process in which cells develop in different ways to perform different tasks

26

Tissue

a group of similar cells and their products that carry out a specific function

27

Organ

groups of tissues that perform a particular job in a n organism

28

Organ System

a group of organs that accomplish related tasks

29

Plant Cells

1) cell walls
2) large vacuole
3) plastids
4) shape- boxy

30

Animal Cells

1) irregular shape
2) smaller vacuoles
3) more lysosomes