Chapter 2 & 3: Chemistry and Biochemistry

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by chemistry_goo
92 views
Grade levels:
6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Reactants

shown on the left side of the equation

2

Products

shown on the right side of the equation

3

Ionic Bond

positive and negative electrical charges that are attracted to each other
ex: sodium ion + chloride ion = NaCl

4

Covalent Bond

when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
ex: 1 oxygen + 2 hydrogen = H2O

5

Atom

simplest particle of an element that retains all of the properties of that element

6

Ion

an atom or molecule with an electrical charge

7

Cation

a positively charged ion

8

Anion

a negatively charged ion

9

Redox Reaction

reactions in which electrons are transferred btwn atoms
-aka oxidation reduction reactions

10

Activation Energy

the amount of energy needed to start the reaction

11

Buffer

chemical substances that neutralize small amounts of either an acid or base added to a solution
*increases H3O+ or OH-*

12

Solute

a substance dissolved in the solvent

13

Solvent

the substance in which the solute is dissolved

14

Cohesion

an attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together

15

Adhesion

the attractive force btwn 2 particles of different substances
-such as water molecules and glass molecules

16

Capilarity

that attraction btwn molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
*(together cohesion, adhesion, and this force help water rise through narrow tubes against the force of gravity) *

17

Polar

an uneven distribution of charge
ex: water is partially charged

18

Nonpolar

Equal sharing of electrons

19

Acid

the number of hydronium ions (H3O+) in a solution is greater than the number of hydroxide ions (OH-)

20

Base

the number of hydroxide ions (OH-) in a solution is greater than the number of hydronium ions (H3O+)

21

pH

a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is

22

Enzymes

RNA or protein molecules that act as *a biological catalyst*
-essential for the functioning of a cell

23

Catalyst

Substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction

24

Substrate

the reactant being catalyzed
-fits into an enzyme like a puzzle piece

25

Monomer

small, simple molecules that can bond together to create polymers

26

Polymer

a molecule that consists of repeated, linked monomers

27

Amino Acid

20 different kinds- all share a basic structure

28

Fatty Acid

unbranched carbon chains that make up most lipids
long carbon chain *with a carboxyl group = COOH*

29

Hydrophilic

attracted to water molecules

30

Hydrophobic

water fearing

31

Saturated

each carbon atom is covalently bonded to 4 atoms
-the carbon atoms are in effect full

32

Unsaturated

double bonds

33

Sucrose

a complex carbohydrate found in many plants and used as a sweetening agent, glucose + fructose

34

Triglycerides

composed of 3 molecules of fatty acid joined to one molecule of the alcohol glycerol

35

Phospholipids

have 2 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol, they have a phosphate group attached to the third carbon of the glycerol

36

Nucleotide

a phosphate group + 5 carbon sugar + a ring shaped nitrogenous base
*aka phosphate group + carbon sugar + nitrogen base*

37

Waxes

a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty acid chain + a long alcohol chain
-waterproof

38

Steroids

a lipid that's composed of fatty acids
-composed of 4 fused carbon rings with various functional groups attached to them

39

Macromolecules

large polymers
ex: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

40

Carbohydrates

organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen = 1 Carbon: 2 Hydrogen: 1 Oxygen

41

Lipids

large, nonpolar organic molecules
don't dissolve in water
include: triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, waxes, and pigments

42

Proteins

organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
formed from the linkage of monomers called amino acids

43

Nucleic Acids

very large and complex organic molecules that store and transfer important info in the cell
-two major types: DNA and RNA

44

Hydrolysis

water is used to break down a polymer

45

Condensation reaction

a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule

46

Functional Group

clusters of atoms