Chapter 10: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis

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1

DNA

.made of nucleotides(phosphate group+sugar+nitrogen base)
.carries hereditary info
*code to make proteins* (blue print)
.inherited
.double helix
.1 type
.A-T, G-C
.makes RNA

2

RNA

.assembles proteins based on DNA
.made by DNA
.single strand- still has nitrogen bases and stuff, just not other side
.A-U, G-C
.3 types of this

3

mRNA

messenger
made by DNA through transcription= DNA is being re-written into this type of RNA
*all strands of this start with AUG=methionine*

4

tRNA

transfer
a folded strand
bond amino acids together based on mRNA codons called translations

5

rRNA

ribosomal = ribosome (these terms are interchangeable)

6

DNA Replication

S-phase of interphase

7

enzyme

biological catalyst-speeds up chemical rxns
*a protein*
(anything that ends in -ase is an enzyme)

8

Protein Synthesis

forming proteins based on info in DNA and carried out by RNA

9

Transcription

DNA acts as a template for the synthesis of RNA

10

Translation

RNA directs the assembly of proteins

11

Base pairing rules

DNA= A-T, G-C
RNA= A-U, G-C

12

Codon

consists of 3 nucleotides om mRNA which determine what amino acid is needed

13

Anticodon

opposite of codon
3 nucleotides that align to the complementary base pairs of the codon of mRNA

14

Start Codon

AUG=methionine
it indicates where the translation should begin

15

Stop Codon

UAA, UAG, UGA
don't code for amino acids, but instead signal for translation to end

16

Helicase

an enzyme that 'unzips' DNA
breaks hydrogen bonds(which are very weak) to create a replication fork(which is at the opening of splitting DNA)

17

Polymerase

adds the complementary base pair to create a new strand
-follows the helicase and as the helicase continues to move, another one of these forms

18

Replication Fork

at opening of a splitting DNA

19

DNA Ligase

fuses DNA segments together if there's a gap

20

Cause of mutations

mutation= error in genetic code
-radiation
-additional nucleotides
-deletion of nucleotides
-substitution of nucleotides

21

Semi Conservative Replication

1/2 of the strand is new, 1/2 of the strand is old