exam 3 VOCAB

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Genetics
Chapters 15-21
vocab
updated 1 year ago by chemistsquirrel
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1

Operon

group of genes transcribed into one mRNA

2

Operator

site to which repressor binds.

3

Repressor

negative regulator

4

Trans-acting elements

can diffuse through the cytoplasms and act at target DNA sites on any DNA molecule in the cell.

5

cis-acting elements

Can influence only the expression of adjacent genes on the same DNA molecule.

6

Reporter gene

Often fused to regulatory regions of genes whose expression is being monitored.

7

Repressors

bind to enhancers (prevent transcription initiation)

8

CpG

site of DNA methylation.

9

insulator

organizes enhancer/promoter interactions (DNA that forms loop from chromatin).

10

Enhancer

activates gene transcription temporal and tissue specifically.

11

Basal factors

bind to promoters.

12

Transgene

gene transferred by a scientist into an organism's genome

13

TALEN

synthetic restriction enzyme

14

Knockout mouse

loss-of-function mutant through gene targeting.

15

GM organism

plant or animal that carries a transgene

16

CRISPR/Cas9

genome editing technology ( Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)

17

Green fluorescent protein

a tag used to follow proteins in living cells.

18

Genetic mosaics

individuals with cells of more than one genotype.

19

Segmentation genes

divide the body into identical units (segments) .

20

Homeotic genes

assign identity to body segments.

21

Morophogen

substance whose concentration determines cell fates.

22

Checkpoints

control progress in the cell cycle in response to DNA damage.

23

Growth Factor receptor

Protein that binds a hormone

24

oncogenes

mutations in these genes are dominant for cancer formation.

25

apoptosis

Programmed cell death.

26

cyclin-dependent protein kinases

cell cycle enzymes that phosphorylate proteins.

27

tumor-suppressor genes

mutations in these genes are recessive at cellular levels for cancer formation.

28

Fitness

ability to survive and reproduce.

29

Genetic drift

chance fluctuations in allele frequency

30

Fixation

p=1.0

31

gene pool

collection of alleles carried by all members of a population.

32

biological ancestors

who begat whom. two biological parents, four grandparents, 8 great grandparents and so on....... This is a set number as long as they weren't related.

33

complex traits

intelligence or personality. influenced by many factors, including multiple genes , environment.

34

broad sense heritability

H^2=VG/Vp

genetic variation/ phenotypic variance

35

narrow sense heritability

proportion of total variance due specifically to variance of the additive genetic component. VA/Vp=h^2

genetic variance/component of overall genetic variance.

36

heritability

proportion of total phenotypic variance attributed to genetic variance.

37

QTL

genes contributing to complex traits. (Quantitative trait loci)

38

NILs

nearly isogenic lines. first step in fine mapping procedures.