Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology & the biosphere

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1

Abiotic Interactions

interactions between organisms & their non-living environment

2

Biotic Interactions

interactions among living things

3

List types of abiotic interactions

temperature, wind, H2O availability, O2 level, sunlight, ph, rocks & soil, nutrient levels

4

List types of biotic interactions

-other species

-presence or absence of pollinators

-food resources

-parasites

-pathogens

-competing organisms

5

True or False

Do abiotic factors vary over space & time

true

6

Can abiotic factors fluctuate daily or annually?

yes or no

if yes what effect does it have

yes; this can blur or accentuate regional distinctions

7

What are a couple of ways that organisms can avoid stressful conditions?

Dormancy or Hibernation

8

How temperature effects dispersal of animals

Organisms thrive within a specific range of environmental temperatures

9

Can organisms live out of there optimal temperature range?

yes

10

How are animals able to live outside their optimal temperature range?

Endothermic; Regulate internal temperature

11

How does climate change affect species inhabit?

It changes their geographic ranges; they move to where their optimal temperature is

12

What happens to animals that don't have access to water?

they desicate

13

Distribution of terrestrial species depends on what?

The terrestrial species ability to obtain & conserve water

14

Aquatic environments with low O2

-deep ocean/lake

-flooded wetlands

15

Aquatic environments with high O2

-surface of streams/rivers

16

Sunlight provides_________to drive ecosystems

energy that drives ecosystems

17

Low availability of sunlight results in?

few photosynthetic organisms

18

Too much sun results in?

limit survival of organisms because organisms are unable to avoid light & unable to cool themselves

19

what is the relationship between higher elevation & sunlight?

At higher elevation, sunlight is more likely to damage DNA + proteins because the atmosphere is thinner & not able to absorb as much UV radiation

20

What happens when trees are preventing from surviving above a certain elevation on mountains?

Tree line forms on mountain slopes

21

Aquatic organisms are limited to freshwater or salt water habitats by their ability to ________.

osmoregulate

22

How do some terrestrial species excrete excess salt?

-specialized glands

-feces

-urine

23

High salinity results in

more species OR less species

less species of plants & animals

24

which organisms can alternate between fresh & salt water & how?

salmon; behavior & physiological mechanisms to osmoregulate

-how much water they drink

-gills take up salt in freshwater

-excrete salt in the ocean

25

Factors that limit distribution of plants

-ph

-mineral composition

-physical structure of rocks

-soil

26

If plants are limited then so are______.

animals

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Term for limited distribution of plants & animals

patchy ecosystem

28

pH

limits organisms

indirectly or directly

Both

indirectly

29

how pH indirectly affects organisms

affect solubility of toxins & nutrients

30

how pH directly affects organisms

extreme acidic or basic conditions

31

What is the composition of the rock bed & whats the effect

rocks & soil

can affect water chemistry which influences the resident organisms

32

Importance of freshwater & marine substrates

determines organisms that can attach or burrow into it

33

Abiotic factors that MOST influence distribution of major terrestrial biomes

temperature & water levels

34

T/F

ocean currents don't influence climates on land

False; ocean currents influence climate along coasts of continents by heating or cooling overlying air masses that pass across land

35

T/F

Coastal regions are wetter than inland regions at the same latitude

True

36

Can bodies of water moderate climate

yes; ocean & large lakes

37

T/F

The ability for large bodies to moderate climate is not limited

False; can be limited to only moderate the coast, but in some places (S. Cali, Sw. Australia, Land surrounding Mediterranean sea), it can moderate coast & inland

38

what happens to sea levels during global warming

Glaciers (made of freshwater) melts into the ocean therefore the sea level rises

39

Explain a rain shadow

warm moist air approaches a mountain that air rises & cools releasing moisture on the windward side of the peak the cool dry air descends & absorbs moisture on the leeward side of the peak

40

Effects of mountains

sunlight reaching an area, which then affects temp & rainfall

41

Mountain elevation effect

high elevation = colder; therefore high elevation has the same temp/community that is far from the equator

42

Explain How Latitudinal variation in sunlight

Sun hits earth equator more intensely than the poles.

43

The latitudinal variation in sunlight causes

movement in air

movement of water

evaporation of water

* the 3 effects dramatize latitudinal variation in climate

44

What causes the seasons

earth's tilt & rotation around the sun

45

How season affects a region

day length, solar radiation, temp, wet & dry seasons, wind pattern

46

How do wind patterns affect ocean

alter ocean current & causes upwelling in some areas

47

Dispersal

the movement of individuals or gametes away from their parent location. This movement sometimes expands the geographic range of a population or species

48

Biotic factors that affect distribution

predatory, herbivory, pollinators, food resources, parasites, pathogens, & competing organisms

49

Abiotic factors that affect distribution

temperature, water, oxygen, salinity, sunlight, soil, geographic barriers, past climates, wind, inability or not enough time to migrate, disturbances

50

Example of disturbances

-storm

-fire

-human activity

51

How does wind affect dispersal?

-amplify temp effects on distribution

-increase heat loss

-ocean circulation dependent on wind

52

explain how global warming influences the distribution of species

-can cause species to inhabit new geographic ranges

-can cause a decrease species size or make them go extinct

-shift timing of seasons

-lasting negative impact on ecosystems

53

ecology

the study of how organisms interact with each other & their environment

54

climate

the long term prevailing weather conditions at a given place

55

biome

any of the world's major ecosystem types often classified according to the predominant vegetation for terrestrial biomes & the physical environment for aquatic biomes & characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment

56

abiotic

nonliving; referring to the physical & chemical properties of an environment

57

biotic

pertaining to the living factors--the organisms-- in an environment

58

ectotherm

referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation

59

endotherm

referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment

60

species range

the geographic area over which individuals of a particular species occur at a point in time

61

species distribution

the distribution of species population among a region, areas of the world in which species live