Ch 52 Introduction to Ecology & the biosphere
interactions between organisms & their non-living environment
interactions among living things
List types of abiotic interactions
temperature, wind, H2O availability, O2 level, sunlight, ph, rocks & soil, nutrient levels
List types of biotic interactions
-presence or absence of pollinators
True or False
Do abiotic factors vary over space & time
Can abiotic factors fluctuate daily or annually?
yes or no
if yes what effect does it have
yes; this can blur or accentuate regional distinctions
What are a couple of ways that organisms can avoid stressful conditions?
Dormancy or Hibernation
How temperature effects dispersal of animals
Organisms thrive within a specific range of environmental temperatures
Can organisms live out of there optimal temperature range?
How are animals able to live outside their optimal temperature range?
Endothermic; Regulate internal temperature
How does climate change affect species inhabit?
It changes their geographic ranges; they move to where their optimal temperature is
What happens to animals that don't have access to water?
Distribution of terrestrial species depends on what?
The terrestrial species ability to obtain & conserve water
Aquatic environments with low O2
Aquatic environments with high O2
-surface of streams/rivers
Sunlight provides_________to drive ecosystems
energy that drives ecosystems
Low availability of sunlight results in?
few photosynthetic organisms
Too much sun results in?
limit survival of organisms because organisms are unable to avoid light & unable to cool themselves
what is the relationship between higher elevation & sunlight?
At higher elevation, sunlight is more likely to damage DNA + proteins because the atmosphere is thinner & not able to absorb as much UV radiation
What happens when trees are preventing from surviving above a certain elevation on mountains?
Tree line forms on mountain slopes
Aquatic organisms are limited to freshwater or salt water habitats by their ability to ________.
How do some terrestrial species excrete excess salt?
High salinity results in
more species OR less species
less species of plants & animals
which organisms can alternate between fresh & salt water & how?
salmon; behavior & physiological mechanisms to osmoregulate
-how much water they drink
-gills take up salt in freshwater
-excrete salt in the ocean
Factors that limit distribution of plants
-physical structure of rocks
If plants are limited then so are______.
Term for limited distribution of plants & animals
indirectly or directly
how pH indirectly affects organisms
affect solubility of toxins & nutrients
how pH directly affects organisms
extreme acidic or basic conditions
What is the composition of the rock bed & whats the effect
rocks & soil
can affect water chemistry which influences the resident organisms
Importance of freshwater & marine substrates
determines organisms that can attach or burrow into it
Abiotic factors that MOST influence distribution of major terrestrial biomes
temperature & water levels
ocean currents don't influence climates on land
False; ocean currents influence climate along coasts of continents by heating or cooling overlying air masses that pass across land
Coastal regions are wetter than inland regions at the same latitude
Can bodies of water moderate climate
yes; ocean & large lakes
The ability for large bodies to moderate climate is not limited
False; can be limited to only moderate the coast, but in some places (S. Cali, Sw. Australia, Land surrounding Mediterranean sea), it can moderate coast & inland
what happens to sea levels during global warming
Glaciers (made of freshwater) melts into the ocean therefore the sea level rises
Explain a rain shadow
warm moist air approaches a mountain that air rises & cools releasing moisture on the windward side of the peak the cool dry air descends & absorbs moisture on the leeward side of the peak
Effects of mountains
sunlight reaching an area, which then affects temp & rainfall
Mountain elevation effect
high elevation = colder; therefore high elevation has the same temp/community that is far from the equator
Explain How Latitudinal variation in sunlight
Sun hits earth equator more intensely than the poles.
The latitudinal variation in sunlight causes
movement in air
movement of water
evaporation of water
* the 3 effects dramatize latitudinal variation in climate
What causes the seasons
earth's tilt & rotation around the sun
How season affects a region
day length, solar radiation, temp, wet & dry seasons, wind pattern
How do wind patterns affect ocean
alter ocean current & causes upwelling in some areas
the movement of individuals or gametes away from their parent location. This movement sometimes expands the geographic range of a population or species
Biotic factors that affect distribution
predatory, herbivory, pollinators, food resources, parasites, pathogens, & competing organisms
Abiotic factors that affect distribution
temperature, water, oxygen, salinity, sunlight, soil, geographic barriers, past climates, wind, inability or not enough time to migrate, disturbances
Example of disturbances
How does wind affect dispersal?
-amplify temp effects on distribution
-increase heat loss
-ocean circulation dependent on wind
explain how global warming influences the distribution of species
-can cause species to inhabit new geographic ranges
-can cause a decrease species size or make them go extinct
-shift timing of seasons
-lasting negative impact on ecosystems
the study of how organisms interact with each other & their environment
the long term prevailing weather conditions at a given place
any of the world's major ecosystem types often classified according to the predominant vegetation for terrestrial biomes & the physical environment for aquatic biomes & characterized by adaptations of organisms to that particular environment
nonliving; referring to the physical & chemical properties of an environment
pertaining to the living factors--the organisms-- in an environment
referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation
referring to organisms that are warmed by heat generated by their own metabolism. This heat usually maintains a relatively stable body temperature higher than that of the external environment
the geographic area over which individuals of a particular species occur at a point in time
the distribution of species population among a region, areas of the world in which species live