Ch. 24 Urinary System

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1

The ___________ transfer urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.

ureters

2

What is the correct sequence of organs for the formation and elimination of urine?

Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra

3

Which is not a function of the kidneys?

Regulation of lymphocyte production

4

The kidneys make the final enzyme for synthesis of the hormone _________, which causes increased calcium absorption in the small intestine.

calcitriol

5

During prolonged fasting, the kidneys produce glucose from noncarbohydrate sources.

TRUE

6

In response to low blood ________, the kidneys secrete __________.

oxygen; erythropoietin

7

The average adult kidney weighs about 100 grams and measures about

12 cm long, 6.5 cm wide, and 2.5 cm thick.

8

In order to accommodate the large liver,

the right kidney is about 2 centimeters inferior to the left kidney.

9

The kidneys are located ___________ the peritoneum.

posterior to

10

The concave medial border of the kidney is called the __________.

hilum

11

From innermost to outermost, the protective layers on the kidney are the

fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.

12

The fibrous capsule of the kidney is composed of

dense irregular connective tissue.

13

The paranephric fat is deep to the fibrous capsule of the kidney.

FALSE

14

An adult human kidney typically contains ______ renal pyramid(s).

8 to 15

15

Where are the renal pyramids located within the kidney?

Renal medulla

16

Which of the following choices lists structures in the order in which urine flows through them?

Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis

17

The first structure in the kidney to collect newly formed urine is the

minor calyx.

18

Extensions of the renal cortex that project into the medulla (and subdivide it) are known as the renal __________.

columns

19

Autonomic innervation of the kidney includes

Cranial Nerve X and sympathetic nerves from T10-T12.

20

Which is not correct regarding the innervation of the kidney?

Parasympathetic stimulation decreases the rate of filtrate formation.

21

Pain from the kidneys is usually referred by way of the:

sympathetic pathways to the T10-T12 dermatomes.

22

Sympathetic axons innervate the afferent and efferent arterioles of the kidneys.

TRUE

23

The renal corpuscle is located within the

renal cortex.

24

The thick tangle of capillary loops found within a corpuscle is known as the

glomerulus.

25

The tubular pole of the renal corpuscle is where afferent and efferent arterioles attach to the glomerulus.

FALSE

26

The glomerulus is part of the renal tubule.

FALSE

27

The proximal convoluted tubule is lined with a

cuboidal epithelium with a large surface area.

28

The nephron loop makes a hairpin turn within the ________ and its ________ limb ends at the distal convoluted tubule.

medulla; ascending

29

Both the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule reside in the cortex of the kidney.

TRUE

30

Which class of nephron is crucially important in establishing a salt concentration gradient in the kidney so that urine concentration can be regulated?

Juxtamedullary nephrons

31

Cortical nephrons have their corpuscles near the _________ edge of the cortex and are the ______ common type of nephron.

peripheral; more

32

Which is not correct regarding nephrons?

The renal corpuscle may be located in the renal cortex or renal medulla.

33

How are nephrons, collecting ducts, and collecting tubules related to each other?

One nephron drains into one collecting tubule, and several collecting tubules empty into a collecting duct.

34

Collecting ducts are larger than collecting tubules.

TRUE

35

Type A and Type B cells of kidney tubules are types of principal cells.

FALSE

36

Which type of distal cell within kidney tubules and collecting ducts are responsive to aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone?

Principal cells

37

The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located

near the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle.

38

The main parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are the

granular cells and macula densa.

39

Stimulation of granular cells by the sympathetic nervous system causes them to

contract.

40

Granular cells synthesize and release the enzyme

renin.

41

Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of

sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.

42

Macula densa cells signal granular cells to release renin through paracrine stimulation.

TRUE

43

Peritubular capillaries are associated with the convoluted tubules, while vasa recta are associated with the nephron loop.

TRUE

44

Which is the correct sequence of arteries that a drop of blood would flow through as it entered the kidney and moved toward a glomerulus?

Renal artery - segmental artery - interlobar artery - arcuate artery - interlobular artery

45

The capillaries of the glomerulus differ from most other capillary networks in the body because they

drain into an arteriole instead of a venule.

46

An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the

efferent arteriole.

47

The pattern of venous drainage in the kidney differs from the arterial supply in that there are no arcuate or segmental veins.

FALSE

48

Immediately before blood enters arterioles of the kidney, it travels through small arteries that project peripherally into the renal cortex. These arteries are the

interlobular arteries.

49

As it is leaving the kidney, blood passes directly from the arcuate vein to the

interlobar vein.

50

Fluid contained within the lumen of a nephron loop is called

tubular fluid.

51

In the process of urine formation, first

filtrate is formed, then tubular fluid, then urine.

52

Fluid contained within a minor calyx is called urine.

TRUE