Ch. 24 Urinary System
The ___________ transfer urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder.
What is the correct sequence of organs for the formation and elimination of urine?
Kidney, ureter, bladder, urethra
Which is not a function of the kidneys?
Regulation of lymphocyte production
The kidneys make the final enzyme for synthesis of the hormone _________, which causes increased calcium absorption in the small intestine.
During prolonged fasting, the kidneys produce glucose from noncarbohydrate sources.
In response to low blood ________, the kidneys secrete __________.
The average adult kidney weighs about 100 grams and measures about
12 cm long, 6.5 cm wide, and 2.5 cm thick.
In order to accommodate the large liver,
the right kidney is about 2 centimeters inferior to the left kidney.
The kidneys are located ___________ the peritoneum.
The concave medial border of the kidney is called the __________.
From innermost to outermost, the protective layers on the kidney are the
fibrous capsule, perinephric fat, renal fascia, paranephric fat.
The fibrous capsule of the kidney is composed of
dense irregular connective tissue.
The paranephric fat is deep to the fibrous capsule of the kidney.
An adult human kidney typically contains ______ renal pyramid(s).
8 to 15
Where are the renal pyramids located within the kidney?
Which of the following choices lists structures in the order in which urine flows through them?
Minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis
The first structure in the kidney to collect newly formed urine is the
Extensions of the renal cortex that project into the medulla (and subdivide it) are known as the renal __________.
Autonomic innervation of the kidney includes
Cranial Nerve X and sympathetic nerves from T10-T12.
Which is not correct regarding the innervation of the kidney?
Parasympathetic stimulation decreases the rate of filtrate formation.
Pain from the kidneys is usually referred by way of the:
sympathetic pathways to the T10-T12 dermatomes.
Sympathetic axons innervate the afferent and efferent arterioles of the kidneys.
The renal corpuscle is located within the
The thick tangle of capillary loops found within a corpuscle is known as the
The tubular pole of the renal corpuscle is where afferent and efferent arterioles attach to the glomerulus.
The glomerulus is part of the renal tubule.
The proximal convoluted tubule is lined with a
cuboidal epithelium with a large surface area.
The nephron loop makes a hairpin turn within the ________ and its ________ limb ends at the distal convoluted tubule.
Both the proximal convoluted tubule and the distal convoluted tubule reside in the cortex of the kidney.
Which class of nephron is crucially important in establishing a salt concentration gradient in the kidney so that urine concentration can be regulated?
Cortical nephrons have their corpuscles near the _________ edge of the cortex and are the ______ common type of nephron.
Which is not correct regarding nephrons?
The renal corpuscle may be located in the renal cortex or renal medulla.
How are nephrons, collecting ducts, and collecting tubules related to each other?
One nephron drains into one collecting tubule, and several collecting tubules empty into a collecting duct.
Collecting ducts are larger than collecting tubules.
Type A and Type B cells of kidney tubules are types of principal cells.
Which type of distal cell within kidney tubules and collecting ducts are responsive to aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone?
The juxtaglomerular apparatus is located
near the vascular pole of the renal corpuscle.
The main parts of the juxtaglomerular apparatus are the
granular cells and macula densa.
Stimulation of granular cells by the sympathetic nervous system causes them to
Granular cells synthesize and release the enzyme
Macula densa cells monitor the concentration of
sodium chloride in the fluid within the distal convoluted tubule.
Macula densa cells signal granular cells to release renin through paracrine stimulation.
Peritubular capillaries are associated with the convoluted tubules, while vasa recta are associated with the nephron loop.
Which is the correct sequence of arteries that a drop of blood would flow through as it entered the kidney and moved toward a glomerulus?
Renal artery - segmental artery - interlobar artery - arcuate artery - interlobular artery
The capillaries of the glomerulus differ from most other capillary networks in the body because they
drain into an arteriole instead of a venule.
An obstruction in the glomerulus would affect the flow of blood into the
The pattern of venous drainage in the kidney differs from the arterial supply in that there are no arcuate or segmental veins.
Immediately before blood enters arterioles of the kidney, it travels through small arteries that project peripherally into the renal cortex. These arteries are the
As it is leaving the kidney, blood passes directly from the arcuate vein to the
Fluid contained within the lumen of a nephron loop is called
In the process of urine formation, first
filtrate is formed, then tubular fluid, then urine.
Fluid contained within a minor calyx is called urine.