Chemical Reactions/Acids & Bases

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1

the information conveyed in a chemical equation

-reactants -amount of reactants -products -amount of products -application of law of conservation of mass

2

reactants

the elements or compounds on the left side of the chemical equation.

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products

the elements or compounds on the right side of the chemical equation.

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Identify the reactants in this chemical equation: 3Mg + H2O >> MgH + 2Mg(OH)

3Mg + H2O

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Identify the products in this chemical equation: 3Mg + H2O -> MgH + 2Mg(OH)

MgH + 2Mg(OH)

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Law of Conservation of Mass

the principle that the amount of matter involved in a chemical reaction does not change

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Balance this chemical equation: _Fe2O3 + _C >> _Fe + _CO2

2Fe2O3 + 3C >> 4Fe + 3CO2

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Balance this chemical equation: _AgNO3 + _LiOH >> _AgOH + _LiNO3

AgNO3 + LiOH >> AgOH + LiNO3

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Balance this chemical equation: _CH4 + _O2 >> _CO2 + _H2O

CH4 + 2O2 >> CO2 + 2H2O

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How is the Law of Conservation of Mass applied to a chemical equation?

the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products (number of atoms same on both sides / balanced)

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evidences for chemical reactions

-property change -precipitate -gas production -color change/odor -release of light/energy -absorb energy

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property change

production of a new substance with properties different from original

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precipitate

solid formed from solution (usually white)

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gas production

formation of gas appearing as bubbles

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color change/odor

the substance produces a new color and/or odor

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endothermic chemical reaction

absorbs energy, feels cold (alka seltzer in water)

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exothermic chemical reaction

release energy, feels warm (an explosion)

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chemical reaction

process by which substances undergo chemical changes

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properties of acids

-taste "sour" -reacts with metals and carbonates -turn blue litmus paper red -pH less than 7

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properties of bases

-taste "bitter" -feel slippery -turn red litmus paper blue -pH greater than 7

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pH 1-6

acid

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pH 7

neutral

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pH 8-14

base

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What is the purpose of using an indicator?

to determine whether a substance is an acid, a base, or neutral

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pH scale

range of values from 0-14, expresses concentration of H+ ions in solution

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the lower the pH number... (the higher/lower the concentration of hydrogen ions)

the higher the concentration of hydrogen ions... (the higher/lower the pH number)

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the higher the pH number... (the higher/lower the concentration of hydrogen ions)

the lower the concentration of hydrogen ions... (the higher/ lower the pH number)

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alkali (is another word for...)

another word for base