the substance that is dissolved by the solvent and is present in the solution in a smaller amount
the part of a solution usually present in the largest amount; doing the dissolving
a well-mixed mixture the particles in a solution are too small to see and have the same properties throughout requires more work to separate
a mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration
HCl + NaOH yields NaCl + H20
acid(hydrogen chloride) + base(sodium hydroxide) yields salt(sodium chloride) + water
What properties make acids?
reacts with metals (magnesium)
reacts with carbonates (chalk)
tastes sour (lemon)
turnes blue litmus paper red
How are acids corrosive?
they wear/eat away metals
What properties make bases?
tastes bitter (toxic water)
feels slippery (soap)
turns red litmus paper blue
does not react with metals or carbonates
What is an indicator and why do we use them?
indicators tell you if you are dealing with an acid or a base
What is the pH scale?
a scale ranging from 0-14 that tells the strength of an acid or a base
How is the scale read?
the lower the number the more acidic
the higher the number more basic
What do the different numbers mean?
if it is an acid or a base
What is acid rain?
rain with a pH of 5.6 or less
How is acid rain formed?
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from factories and cars go up into the atmosphere and mix with water vapor
How were fossil fuels formed?
coal, natural gas, oil
prehistoric plants and animals (dead/decaying) from underground
How are fossil fuels useful to us?
gasoline, electricity, heat
What is the pH level for normal rain?
5-7 because of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the greenhouse affect
How does acid rain differ in pH?
3.5 is the lowest
Why is acid rain destructive to the earth and things on earth?
it stunts plant growth, decreases biodiversity, eats away buildings, and destroys ecosystems