acids/bases

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created 4 months ago by sunshineb777
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1

FLUID COMPARTMENTS

(EXTRACELLULAR=PLASMA & INTERSTITIAL FLUID)

  • MALES= 60% WATER. 40% IINTRACELLULAR. 20% EXTRACELLULAR
  • FEMALES= 50% WATER. 35% INTRACELLULAR. 15% EXTRACELLULAR
2

CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTES IN BODY FLUIDS

  • SODIUM HIGHER IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • POTASSIUM & MAGNESIUM HIGHER IN INTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • CHLORIDE & BICARBONATE HIGHER IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • PHOSPHATE & PROTEIN HIGHER IN INTRACELLULAR FLUID
3

WATER INTAKE & LOSS

  • ENTERING:INGESTION 90% & CELLULAR METABOLISM 10% (WATER WE MAKE IN ETC)
  • LOSS:
    • URINE 61%
    • EVAPORATION 35%
    • PERSPIRATION
      • INSENSIBLE: UNAWARE OF LOSS/DRYING OUT
      • SENSIBLE: AWARE OF LOSS, SWEATING
    • RESPIRATORY PASSAGES: BREATHE OUT WATER VAPOR
    • FECES: 4%
4

HYPONATREMIA

  • LOW PLASMA NA+ LEVELS
5

HYPERNATREMIA

  • HIGH PLASMA NA+ LEVELS
6

HYPOKALEMIA

  • ABNORMALLY LOW LEVEL OF K+ IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
7

HYPERKALEMIA

  • ABNORMALLY HIGH LEVEL OF K+ IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
8

HYPERCALCEMIA

  • ABNORMALLY HIGH LEVEL OF CALCIUM IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
9

HYPOCALCEMIA

  • ABNORMALLY LOW LEVEL OF CALCIUM IN EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
10

ELECTROLYTE

  • A SUBSTANCE THAT WILL DISSOLVE & DISSOCIATE INTO CHARGED PARTICLES (IONS). SOLUTION WILL CARRY AN ELECTRICAL CURRENT: NaCl
11

NONELECTROLYTE

  • A SUBSTANCE THAT MIGHT DISSOLVE BUT IT DOES NOT DISSOCIATE INTO CHARGED PARTICLES: SUCROSE
12

EDEMA

  • EXCESSIVE ACCUMULATION OF FLUID WITHIN OR AROUND CELLS, CAUSING SWELLING
13

PTH

  • SECRETED BY THE PARATHYROID HORMONE
  • INCREASES EXTRACELLULAR CA+ LEVELS & REDUCES EXTRACELLULAR PHOSPHATE LEVELS
  • REGULATED BY EXTRACELLULAR CA LEVELS
  • ELEVATED CA LEVELS INHIBIT PTH SECRETION & REDUCED LEVELS STIMULATE IT
  • PTH CAUSES INCREASED OSTEOCLAST ACTIVITY= DEGRADATION OF BONE RELEASING CA & P IONS INTO THE BLOOD
  • INCREASES RATE OF CA REABSORPTION FROM RENAL TUBULES IN KIDNEYS & INCREASES CONCENTRATION OF PHOSPHATE IONS IN THE URINE
14

CALCITONIN

  • SECRETED BY PARAFOLICULAR CELLS OF THE THYROID GLAND
  • HELPS REDUCE EXTRACELLULAR CA+ LEVELS
  • PREVENTS BONE DEGRADATION WHICH KEEPS BLOOD CA LEVELS FROM RISING
15

ACIDOSIS

  • BLOOD PH BELOW 7.35
16

ALKALOSIS

  • BLOOD PH ABOVE 7.45
17

BUFFERS

  • CHEMICALS OR ACTIONS THAT RESIST CHANGES IN PH
18

CHEMICAL BUFFERS

  • BICARBONATE BUFFER: EXTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • PROTEIN BUFFER: EXTRA/INTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • PHOSPHATE BUFFER: INTRACELLULAR FLUID
  • CAN REACH ITS LIMIT & NO LONGER BUFFER
19

PHYSIOLOGICAL BUFFERS

  • RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: LOW VENTILATION(HYPOVENTILATION) INCREASE H+ =MORE ACIDIC
    • HIGHER VENTILATION(HYPERVENTILATION) DECREASE H+= MORE BASIC
  • URINARY SYSTEM: SAVE/ LET PASS H+
20

RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS

  • HYPOVENTILATION= BLOOD PH DECREASES
  • ASTHMA
  • REDUCED ELIMINATION OF CO2 FROM BODY FLUIDS
21

RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS

  • HYPERVENTILATION= BLOOD PH INCREASES
22

METABOLIC ACIDOSIS/ALKALOSIS

  • ANYTHING THATS NOT RESPIRATORY
23

HOW URINARY SYSTEM CONTROL PH

  • PH LEVEL IS 4-8
  • HAS A WIDE RANGE TO ADJUST SO BLOOD PH DOES NOT HAVE TO THAT MUCH
24

PH

  • INCREASING H+ INCREASING ACIDITY
  • INCREASING OH- INCREASES ALKALINITY (MORE BASIC)
25

SOURCES OF H+ (INCREASES ACIDITY)

  • HC3
  • H2CO3
  • LACTIC ACID
  • H2SO4
  • KETONES
  • WE MAKE THEM VIA METABOLISM
26

SOURCES OF OH- (INCREASES ALKALINITY)

  • EATING THINGS WITH NA, K, MG, CA
  • THEY MAKE HYDROXIDES
27

ACID

  • COMPOUND THAT FORMS HYDROGEN IONS IN SOLUTIONS (A SOLUTION WITH A PH LOWER THAN 7)
28

BASE

  • A SUBSTANCE THAT REDUCES THE CONCENTRATION OF HYDROGEN IONS IN A SOLUTION (PH HIGHER THAN 7)
29

ION

  • AN ATOM OR GROUP OF ATOMS WITH A POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE CHARGE AFTER HAVING GAINED OR LOST AN ELECTRON
30

CATION

  • ATOM THAT HAS LOST AN ELECTRON, RESULTING IN A NET POSITIVE CHARGE
31

ANION

  • ION WITH A NEGATIVE CHARGE
32

ALKALINITY

  • HAVING A PH GREATER THAN 7