urinary disorders

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Pharmacology
Chapter 48
updated 6 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

cystitis

  • lower UTI
  • frequently in females
2

what are the symptoms of cystitis

pain and burning on urination, frequency, urgency

3

pyelonephritis is the infection of the______

  • upper urinary
  • more common in women
4

S/S of pyelonephritis

  • chills, high fever, flank pain
  • painful urination, frequency, urgency, pyuria
5

is nitrofurantoin bacteriostatic or bactericidal. what does that mean?

  • it can be either depending on dosage.
  • bacteriostatic means it slows bacterial growth
  • bactericidal means it kills bacteria
6

what are the S/S to look out for while taking nitrofurantoin

  • anorexia
  • abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • brown urine discoloration
7

what should you teach your patient about taking nitrofurantoin?

  • it may turn urine brown
  • avoid antacids as they interfere with absorption
  • increase fluids and take with food to minimize GI upset
8

what should you do to evaluate the effectiveness of nitrofurantoin

  • urinalysis: to determine if drug is effective
  • ask patient how they are feeling
9

what makes methanamine unique?

it is bactericidal when urine is acidic (<5.5). it relies of the acidity of urine to be effective. turns to ammonia and formaldehyde when urine is acidic

10

what is methenamine used for? what are some nursing considerations?

  • chronic UTIs
  • avoid taking with sulfonamides
  • consume acidic foods and fluids
11

what are some SE to look out for while taking methenamine

  • crystalluria
  • elevated hepatic enzymes
12

what is trimethoprim and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole used for?

acute and chronic UTIs. it's aim is for pain relief. used mainly as combination drug

13

what are the AE to look out for while on trimethoprim and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole?

  • elevated hepatic enzymes
  • hyperkalemia
  • torsades de pointes
14

what medication can be used in uncomplicated UTIs? when no other treatment options are available? what type of UTI is it used to treat?

  • fluoroquinolone.
  • lower UTI
15

what are the SE of fluoroquinolones

  • peripheral neuropathy
  • tendinitis
  • tendon rupture
16

do you need prescription to take phenazopyridine? what is the action?

  • no, it is an OTC drug
  • relieve pain, burning sensation, frequency, urgency
17

bethanecol is a parasympathomimetic drug contraindicated in what condition

peptic ulcer

18

what is the MOA of oxybutynin

relaxes the muscle of the bladder to relief spasms

19

AE/SE of oxybutynin

  • blurred vision
  • tachycardia
  • dry mouth
  • GI distress
  • constipation
20

oxybutynin is contraindicated in

glaucoma, GI or urinary obstruction

21

tolterodine tartrate is a parasympatholytic used to control

overactive bladder, decrease urge and urinary incontinence

22

what SE should you educate your client about before taking phenazopyridine? what other SE should you look out for

  • it turns urine red-orange
  • hemolytic anemia
  • nephrotoxicity
  • hepatotoxicity
23

tolterodine tartrate is contraindicated in

narrow-angled glaucoma and hepatic impairment