Nervous System 2 Part 2

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Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

the unconscious mind drives 95% of beliefs and behaviors.


Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

it receives 11,000,000 pieces of data a second, which include visual data, smells,
sounds, feelings, tastes, temperature and pressure. The unconscious mind processes
the information, and decides which of only 126 bits of data is presented to the
conscious mind.


Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

at least 7 variables determine how the incoming information will be prioritized:

1. beliefs – based on experience and learning
2. memories – apply past emotions to current data
3. values – strongly influence how incoming data is perceived
4. language – our way of defining our data and experiences
5. attitudes – emotions attached to specific content
6. physical attributes – we store and process everything based upon time or space,
matter or energy
7. decisions – early decisions (I’m unworthy) become the basis for future decisions


Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

much data is categorized and/or filtered one of three ways:

1. deletion – we delete data that doesn’t match our expectations or focus (IE. losing
track of a conversation when another person enters the room
2. distortion – of data to make it match expectations. (IE. a penalty called in a football game can equally be seen as right by one team and incorrect by the other)
3. generalization – of data to make it fit known categories. (IE. jocks, lazy, geeky)


Conscious vs. Unconscious Mind

you can increase the amount of data you receive consciously several different ways:

1. focus on what it is that you want in a positive format. The mind does not process negatives well. Saying to yourself, “I can’t lose this deal” is perceive by your unconscious mind as, “Lose this deal.” Instead, say to yourself, “I will win this deal.” Experienced coaches use this. Instead of saying, “Don’t fumble” they say “Hold on to the ball.”
2. Change the way information is presented to see new trends and opportunities. Graphs, infograms, addition of color, etc. all take advantage of changing from what your unconscious mind expects to see given past patterns.
3. Ask questions. Statements focus our unconscious mind on familiar subjects. Questions force the issue to the conscious mind to explore.


Three kinds of functional areas

motor, sensory and association


Motor areas

Found on the frontal lobe in 4 regions

Primary motor cortex – in precentral gyrus, frontal lobe
- pyramidal tracts (voluntary control of skeletal muscle)
- neurons controlling associative functions are close
together. Damage results in loss of voluntary (but
not reflex) movement


Motor areas
Found on the frontal lobe in 4 regions

Premotor cortex - immediately anterior to precentral gyrus
- learned, repetitious motor skills (typing, playing guitar)
- damage here would slow you down, but you can relearn


Motor areas
Found on the frontal lobe in 4 regions

Broca’s area - anterior to inferior region of premotor area
- found on only one side (usually the left)
- directs muscles involved in speech production
- also helps ‘plan’ voluntary motor activities


Motor areas
Found on the frontal lobe in 4 regions

. Frontal eye field - superior to Broca’s area
- controls voluntary movement of the eyes


Sensory areas

Found in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in 7 areas


Sensory areas
Found in the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in 7 areas

primary somatosensory cortex – receive information from the general (somatic) sensory receptors in the skin and from proprioceptors in the skeletal muscles

Spatial discrimination -ability to identify what part of the body is being stimulated – happens here


sensory areas

Sensomatosensory association cortex sory areas

integrates sensory input (temp, pressure, etc.) relayed by the primary somatosensory cortex to produce an understanding of the input (size, texture, etc)


Sensory areas

visual areas

receives and interprets info from the retina


Sensory areas

auditory areas

from auditory info from the inner ear


Sensory areas

olfactory area

smell sensations. This primitive part of the brain has developed new evolutionary ties with the cerebrum and now functions with the limbic system regarding emotions and memory.


Sensory areas

gustatory cortex

receives and interprets taste information


Sensory areas

vestibular (equilibrium) cortex

controls awareness of balance


Sensory areas

. Association areas

each of the special sensory cortices have nearby association areas
with which they communication to analyze and act on sensory input in relation to past


Sensory Areas

Association areas

1. Prefrontal cortex

involved with intellect, complex learning (cognition), recall and personality. Necessary for judgment, reasoning, long-term planning, and conscience. Matures slowly and development is dependent on feedback from one’s social environment. Closely linked to the emotional (limbic system) parts of the brain.


Sensory Areas
Association areas

2. Language areas

a. Wernicke’s area – sounding out new words
b. Broca’s area – speech production
c. Lateral prefrontal cortex – language comprehension
d. Lateral and ventral temporal lobe – coordinates the auditor and visual aspects of language
e. Right hemisphere – interprets ‘body language’ and tone


Sensory Areas
Association areas

General interpretation area

usually on left hemisphere. Integrates incoming signals into a single thought


Sensory Areas
Association areas

4. Visceral association area

mostly involved in conscious perception of visceral


Sensory Areas

Cerebral White

- responsible for communication between cortex and underlying CNS
- consists mainly of myelinated fibers bundled into 3 types of large tracts
1. Commissures - connect gray areas of the two hemispheres
- corpus callosum is the biggest and most important
- more interconnected in women than in men
2. Association fibers - connect different parts of the same
3. Projection fibers - connect cortex to nervous system receptors
and effectors


Sensory Areas

Basal Nuclei (note: older texts call this the basal ganglia)

1. The basal ganglia are actually nuclei (clusters of neuron cell bodies in
the CNS) that are found in the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon
and midbrain.
2. Function
- aid in regulation of attention and cognition
- starting, stopping, monitoring intensity of movements executed
by the cortex
- inhibit unnecessary movements (disorders exemplified by
Parkingson’s and Huntington’s diseases
- amygdala functions with the limbic system

- with the cerebral cortex and thalamus they form circuits which
influence affect (emotions), memory, cognitive (thinking)


Limbic system

The limbic system is a set of brain structures located on both sides of the thalamus, immediately beneath the cerebrum. It has also been referred to as the paleomammalian cortex. It is not a separate system but a collection of structures.


Limbic system

Limbic system structures are involved in many of our emotions and motivations, particularly those that are related to survival. Such emotions include fear, anger, and emotions related to sexual behavior. The limbic system is also involved in feelings of pleasure that are related to our survival, such as those experienced from eating and sex.


Limbic system

Certain structures of the limbic system are involved in memory as well. Two large limbic system structures, the amygdala and hippocampus, play important roles in memory. The amygdala is responsible for determining what memories are stored and where the memories are stored in the brain



There is a normal loss of neural ability due to age. Age-related effects involve loss of
neurons and decreased capacity for sending nerve impulses. This is not currently considered a pathology, although a great deal of current research is being conducted in neurogeriatrics.



Concussion - impact to the brain
1. may lose consciousness or be dizzy or confused
2. formerly thought to cause no permanent damage, but these are cumulative



Contusion - brain tissue destruction
1. cortical contusions - may remain conscious
2. brain stem contusions - coma of varying duration due to injury to the reticular
activating system



Subdural or subarchnoid hemorrhage may follow either of the above
- treated by removal of hematoma and repair of vessels



Cerebral edema (swelling of the brain)
1. may also follow concussion or contusion
2. treated w/ anti-inflammatory drugs with shunt when necessary


Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA’s, stroke)

3rd leading cause of death in the U.S

a. results from ischemia (deprivation of blood supply) to brain tissue
b. most common cause - blockage of blood vessel by a clot; but can also be caused
by bleeding due to burst aneurysm
c. less than 35% of patients surviving full CVA are alive in 3 years


Temporary ischemia (transient ischemic attacks (TIA’s))

last from 5 to 50 minutes

treatment of both CVA’s and TIA’s is tissue plasminogen activator to bust clot
- but only after CT confirms ischemia is not due to hemorrhage


Degenerative Disorders

Alzheimer’s Disease

1. Progressive disease resulting in dementia
2. ½ of nursing home patients have this; between 5-15% of people over 65
3. Beta amyloid peptide changes behavior & causes ACh deficiency & fibril tangles
4. Only current treatment is inhibiting ACh breakdown


Degenerative Disorders

Parkinson’s Disease

1. Usually strikes in the 50's and 60's
2. Degeneration of dopamine-releasing neurons in the substantia nigra causes the
basal nuclei to become overactive, resulting in tremors, forward-bent
walking, shuffling gait, stiff facial expression, slow initiation and execution
of movement
3. Treatment
a. l-dopa - becomes ineffective over time (also causes liver damage, nausea)
b. deprenyl - given early delays need for L-dopa for up to 18 months
c. intrabrain transplants of embryonic substantia nigra - only treatment exhibiting
disease regression


Degenerative Disorders

Huntington’s Disease

1. Fatal hereditary disorder usually striking in middle age
2. Tangles of huntingtin protein accumulate, causing death of basal nuclei and cerebrum
3. Jerky, continuous, ‘flapping’ movements - the opposite of Parkinson’s disease, overstimulation as opposed to inhibition of the motor drive
4. Treated with block dopamine effects
5. Fetal tissue implants offer promising results


Degenerative Disorders

Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

1. autoimmune condition in which the immune system attacks the CNS, leading to demyelination and the formation of sclera (scars).
2. Disease onset usually occurs in young adults, and it is more common in women. Because the sclera occurs in random places that differ from patient to patient, the disease symptoms and progression vary widely
3. It has a prevalence that ranges between 2 and 150 per 100,000.
4. MS is predominantly a disease of the white matter in the central nervous system. (about 95% of all lesions associated with MS occur in the white matter.)
5. MS takes several forms, with new symptoms occurring either in discrete attacks (relapsing forms) or slowly accumulating over time (progressive forms). Between attacks, symptoms may go away completely, but permanent neurological problems often occur, especially as the disease advances. There is no known cure for MS. Treatments attempt to return function after an attack, prevent new attacks, and prevent disability



results from irregular electrical discharges of brain cells and may be diagnosed by an electroencephalogram (EEG). An EEG records brain waves generated by the cerebral cortex and may also be used to diagnose tumors and infections.


Cerebral palsy

group of motor disorders caused by damage to motor centers of the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or basal ganglia during fetal development, childbirth, or early infancy