adrenergic agonists and antagonists; cholinergic agonists and antagonists
adrenergic agonist drugs stimulate what system? what is the primary neurotransmitter
- stimulate the SNS (fight or flight)
define catecholamines. what response can it produce?
they are chemical structure of a substance that can produce a sympathomimetic response
sympathomimethic: adrenergic agonist
- what is the MOA of epinephrine?
acts on alpha1, beta1 and 2 receptors causing vasoconstriction
what is epinephrine used for
anaphylaxis reaction, bronchospasm, cardiac arrest, cardiac resuscitation
the nurse know epinephrine is working when ____
BP goes up and the patient can easily breathe
what are some S/S you will see if a patient is having a SE/AR to epinephrine
tachycardia, HTN, tissue death, agitation
what beta-adrenergic agonist works on the lungs to dilate and relax muscles?
albuterol. it relaxes bronchial smooth muscle, causing bronchodilation
uses of albuterol
asthma and prophlaxis for bronchospasm
what are some SE of albuterol?
tremors, dizziness, tachycardia, HTN, dysrhythmias
central-acting alpha agonist
- clonidine MOA and use?
- produce vasodilation
what are some SE/AR of taking clonidine
headache, drowsiness, ejaculation dysfunction, elevated liver enzymes
drugs that block the effects of adrenergic neurotransmitters are______. what do they block?
adrenergic antagonist or adrenergic blockers. they either block alpha or beta receptors
your patient is experiencing tachycardia, HTN, urinary retention, etc. what type of drug will you give?
an adrenergic antagonist
effects of adrenergic blockers on receptors
beta 1-adrenergic blockers
- MOA of atenolol. what does it suppress?
- blocks beta1 adrenergic receptor sites.
- it suppresses the RAAS system
atenolol is used for______
HTN, angina, and AMI
what should the nurse monitor closely after administering atenolol?
BP and pulse.
what are some SE/AR a patient will experience while taking atenolol
drowsiness, dizziness, erectile dysfunction, hypotension, bronchospasm
cholinergic agonist are drugs that______
what do they mimic?
- stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system
- mimic the action of acetylcholine
- bethanechol chloride stimulates_____
the cholinergic receptors
bethanechol chloride is used for____
to increase urinary in urinary retention and neurogenic bladder
what are the SE/AR of taking bethanechol
tachycardia, weakness, bronchospasm, cholinergic crisis
cholinergic crisis is the overstimulation of what? what will a patient in a cholinergic crisis experience?
- overstimulation of cholinergic system.
- bronchospasm, tachycardia, weakness.
cholinergic antagonists inhibit the actions of____by blocking_____
acetylcholine; the receptors
cholinergic antagonists have effects on what body systems?
- respiratory tract
- GI tract
- urinary system
- exocrine glands
what anticholinergic or parasympatholytic drug inhibits acetylcholine by occupying the receptors
what is atropine used for
pre-op medication to reduce salivation, increase HR, dilate pupils
SE/AR of atropine
tachycardia, pulmonary edema, laryngospasm, anticholinergic toxicity
atropine is contraindicated in______
renal and hepatic disorder, COPD, heart failure
the nurse know her patient is going through an anticholinergic toxicity when____
- benztropine MOA
- block cholinergic receptors, dopamine uptake
- decrease involuntary symptoms of Parkinsonism
- tachycardia, urinary retention, hallucinations, paresthesia
- tolterodine tartrate MOA
- blocks cholinergic receptors in urinary bladder
- decrease urinary frequency, urgency, incontinence
- chest pain, tachycardia, peripheral edema, blurred vision, confusion