Exploring Psychology: Chapter 9 Thinking, Language and Intelligence - Rehearse It! Flashcards

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A concept is

A)A mental grouping of similar things
B)An example of insight
C)A fixation on certain characteristics
D)A representativeness heuristic



The most systemic procedure for solving a problems is a(n)




A major obstacle to problem solving is fixation, which is a(n)

A)A tendency to base our judgments on vivid memories
B)Art of framing the same question in two different ways
C)Inability to view a problem from new perspective
D)Rule of thumb the likelihood of an event in terms of mental image of it



You notice your new next-door neighbor is very neatly dressed, wears glasses, and is reading a Greek play. Given a choice between her being a librarian and a store clerk, you incorrectly guess that she is a librarian. You were probably led astray by

A)The availability heuristic
B)Confirmation bias
D)The representativeness heuristic



5. After 9/11 attacks by foreign-born terrorists, some observers initially assumed that the 2003 East Coast blackout was probably also the work of foreign-born terrorists. This assumption illustrates

A) Belief perseverance
B) The availability heuristic
C) Fixation
D) Confirmation bias



When consumers respond more positively to ground beef described as “75 percent lean” than to the same product labeled “25 percent fat,” they have been influenced by

A)Belief perseverance
C)Confirmation bias



Children reach the one-word stage of speech development at about

A)4 months
B)6 months
C)1 year
D)2 years



Skinner’s view that we learn language the same way we learn other behaviors – though association, imitation, and reinforcement – is most helpful in explaining

A)The onset of babbling
B)The speech behavior of deaf infants
C)The seemingly effortless mastery of grammatical rules by very young children
D)Why children learn their household’s language



According to Chomsky, children are born with readiness to learn the grammatical rules of language, and all they need to acquire language is

A)Instruction in grammar
B)Exposure to some language in early childhood
C)Reinforcement for babbling and other early verbal behavior
D)Imitation and drill



Our language influences the way we perceive and think about the world. This idea, adapted from Whorf’s hypothesis helps explain why

A)A person who learns a second language thinks differently in that language
B)Children have built-in readiness to learn grammatical rules
C)Children’s babbling contains sounds not found in languages spoken in their homes,
D)Artists, athletes, and others are able to think in visual images



11. Of examples discussed in Sultan the chimpanzee’s this section, problem-solving behavior that most closely resembled insight was

A) Loulis the chimpanzee’s ability to learn signs by observing Washoe
B) Sultan the chimpanzee’s use of a short stick to pull a long stick
C) Kanzi the pygmy chimpanzee’s ability to understand differences in English sentences
D) Washoe the chimpanzee’s use of sign language to request her baby



Most researchers agree that apes can

A)Communicate though symbols
B)Reproduce most human speech sounds
C)Master language in adulthood
D)Surpass a human 3-year-old in language skills



The existence of savant syndrome – limited mental ability combined with an exceptional specific skill – seems to support

A)Sternberg’s distinction among three aspects of intelligence
B)Spearman’s notion of general intelligence of a g factor
C)Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence
D)Thorndike’s view of social intelligence



Sternberg’s three aspects of intelligence are

A)Spatial, academic, and artistic
B)Musical, athletic, and academic
C)Academic, practical, and creative
D)Emotional, practical, and spatial



Emotionally intelligent people tend to

A)Seek immediate gratification
B)Understand their own emotions but not those of others
C)Understand others’ emotions but not their own
D)Succeed in their careers



Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a creative person

B)Extrinsic motivation
C)A venturesome personality
D)Imaginative thinking skills



Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was originally defined as mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100. By this definition, the IQ of s 6-year-old with a measured mental age of 9 would be




The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) yields an overall intelligence score as well as separate verbal and performance (nonverbal) score. The WAIS is best able to tell us

A)What part of an individual’s intelligence is determined by genetic inheritance
B)Whether the test-taker will succeed in a job
C)How the test-taker compares to other adults in vocabulary and arithmetic reasoning
D)Whether the test-taker has specific skills for music and the performing arts



The Stanford-Binet, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children are known to have very high reliability (about +.9). This means that

A)A pretest has been given to a representative sample
B)The test yields consistent results, for example on retesting
C)The test measures what it is supposed to measure
D)The results of the test will predict future h=behavior, such as college grades or success in business



The strongest support for heredity’s influence on intelligence is the finding that

A)Identical twins, but not other siblings, have identical intelligence scores
B)The correlation between intelligence test scores of fraternal twins is higher than that for other siblings
C)Mental similarities between adopted siblings increase with age
D)Children in impoverished families have similar intelligence scores



To say the heritability of intelligence is about 50 percent of

A)An individual’s intelligence is due to genetic factors
B)The similarities between men and women are attributable to genes
C)The variation in intelligence within a group of people is attributable to genetic factors
D)Intelligence is due to the mother’s genes and the rest is due to the father’s genes



The environmental influences that has the clearest, most profound effect on intellectual development is

A)Being enrolled in Head Start Program
B)Growing up in an economically disadvantaged home of neighborhood
C)Being raised in conditions of extreme dedrivation
D)Being an identical twin