exam 2 vocab
a group of three mRNA bases signifying one amino acid.
a dictionary of sequences of nucleotides , defines each amino acid in terms of specific sequences of three nucleotides (codons).
DNA sequences that provide the signal to RNA polymerase for starting transcription.
a sequence of base pairs within a gene that is not represented by any bases in the mature mRNA.
Ability of the 5'- most nucleotide of an anticodon to interact with more than one nucleotide at the 3'-end of codons; tRNA's recognize more than one codon.
the grouping of mRNA bases in threes to be read as codons
removing base sequences corresponding to introns from the primary transcript.
copying RNA into DNA. by help of reverse transcriptase.
a short DNA fragment that can be synthesized by a machine.
contains genetic material from two different organisms.
a DNA molecule used for transporting, replicating, and purifying a DNA fragment.
DNA copied from RNA by reverse transcriptase.
sets of genes related by processes of duplication and divergence.
Alternative RNA splicing
the joining together of exons in a gene in different combinations.
a discrete part of a protein that provides a unit of function.
arose from the same gene in the common ancestor, usually retain same function
arise by duplication; often refers to members of a gene family.
a DNA sequence that occurs in two or more variant forms
SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)
two different nucleotides appear at the same position in genomic DNA from different individuals.
detection of genotype at a number unlinked highly polymorphic loci.
SSR(simple sequence repeats)
DNA element composed of short tandemly repeated sequences
location on a chromosome
all exons in a genome.
self replicating genetic structures of cells containing the DNA that carries in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes.
chromosomal region that appears much lighter and less conensed when viewed under a light microscope.
beadlike structure consisting of DNA wound around histone proteins.
FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization)
a physical mapping approach that uses fluorescent tags to detect hybridization of nucleic acid probes with chromosomes.
complexes of DNA, protein, and RNA in eukaryotic nucleus.
small basic proteins that bind to DNA and form the core of nucleosome.
specialized structure at the end of a linear chromosome.
exact exchange of parts of two non-homologous chromosomes.
including the centromere.
excluding the centromere.
having more than two complete sets of chromosomes.
lacking one or more chromosome or having one or more extra chromosomes.
movement of short DNA elements.
transfer of naked DNA
transfer of DNA requiring direct physical contact.
transfer of DNA between bacteria via virus particles.
infection by phages in which lysis of cells releases new virus particles.
cells whose chromosome carry an integrated plasmid of F+ cells. produce high frequency of recombinants for chromosomal genes when mated with F- strains.
smaller circular DNA molecule that can integrate into the chromosome.
a cell with a mixture of different mtDNAs generates a daughter cell with only one kind.
cell with mtDNAs or cpDNAs with different genotypes.
transmission of genes through maternal gamete only.
transmission of genes through both a maternal or a parental gamete.