exam 2 vocab

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Genetics
Chapters 8-14
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1

Codon

a group of three mRNA bases signifying one amino acid.

2

Genetic code

a dictionary of sequences of nucleotides , defines each amino acid in terms of specific sequences of three nucleotides (codons).

3

Promoter

DNA sequences that provide the signal to RNA polymerase for starting transcription.

4

Intron

a sequence of base pairs within a gene that is not represented by any bases in the mature mRNA.

5

Wobble

Ability of the 5'- most nucleotide of an anticodon to interact with more than one nucleotide at the 3'-end of codons; tRNA's recognize more than one codon.

6

Reading frame

the grouping of mRNA bases in threes to be read as codons

7

RNA splicing

removing base sequences corresponding to introns from the primary transcript.

8

Reverse transcription

copying RNA into DNA. by help of reverse transcriptase.

9

Oligonucleotide

a short DNA fragment that can be synthesized by a machine.

10

Recombinant DNA

contains genetic material from two different organisms.

11

Vector

a DNA molecule used for transporting, replicating, and purifying a DNA fragment.

12

cDNA

DNA copied from RNA by reverse transcriptase.

13

Gene family

sets of genes related by processes of duplication and divergence.

14

Alternative RNA splicing

the joining together of exons in a gene in different combinations.

15

Protein domain

a discrete part of a protein that provides a unit of function.

16

Orthologous genes

arose from the same gene in the common ancestor, usually retain same function

17

Paralogous genes

arise by duplication; often refers to members of a gene family.

18

DNA polymorphism

a DNA sequence that occurs in two or more variant forms

19

SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms)

two different nucleotides appear at the same position in genomic DNA from different individuals.

20

DNA fingerprinting

detection of genotype at a number unlinked highly polymorphic loci.

21

SSR(simple sequence repeats)

DNA element composed of short tandemly repeated sequences

22

Locus

location on a chromosome

23

Exome

all exons in a genome.

24

Chromosome

self replicating genetic structures of cells containing the DNA that carries in its nucleotide sequence the linear array of genes.

25

Euchromatin

chromosomal region that appears much lighter and less conensed when viewed under a light microscope.

26

Nucleosome

beadlike structure consisting of DNA wound around histone proteins.

27

FISH(fluorescence in situ hybridization)

a physical mapping approach that uses fluorescent tags to detect hybridization of nucleic acid probes with chromosomes.

28

Chromatin

complexes of DNA, protein, and RNA in eukaryotic nucleus.

29

Histones

small basic proteins that bind to DNA and form the core of nucleosome.

30

Telomere

specialized structure at the end of a linear chromosome.

31

Reciprocal translocation

exact exchange of parts of two non-homologous chromosomes.

32

pericentric

including the centromere.

33

paracentric

excluding the centromere.

34

polyploidy

having more than two complete sets of chromosomes.

35

aneuploids

lacking one or more chromosome or having one or more extra chromosomes.

36

transposition

movement of short DNA elements.

37

transformation

transfer of naked DNA

38

conjugation

transfer of DNA requiring direct physical contact.

39

transduction

transfer of DNA between bacteria via virus particles.

40

lytic cycle

infection by phages in which lysis of cells releases new virus particles.

41

Hfr chromosome

cells whose chromosome carry an integrated plasmid of F+ cells. produce high frequency of recombinants for chromosomal genes when mated with F- strains.

42

episome

smaller circular DNA molecule that can integrate into the chromosome.

43

Cytoplasmic segregation

a cell with a mixture of different mtDNAs generates a daughter cell with only one kind.

44

heteroplasmic

cell with mtDNAs or cpDNAs with different genotypes.

45

maternal inheritance

transmission of genes through maternal gamete only.

46

biparental inheritance

transmission of genes through both a maternal or a parental gamete.