Chapter 7 Learning Rehearse It!

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1

Learning is defined as “a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to

A)Instinct”
B)Mental processes”
C)Experience”
D)Formal education

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2

Two forms of associative learning are classical conditioning, in which the organism associates _____, and operant conditioning, in which the organism associates

A)Two responses; a response and a consequence
B)Two stimuli; two responses
C)Two stimuli; a response and a consequence
D)Two responses; two stimuli

...

3

In Pavlov’s experiments, dogs learned to salivate in response to a tone. The tone is therefore a(n)

A)Conditioned stimulus
B)Unconditional stimulus
C)Neutral stimulus
D)Unconditional response

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4

Dogs can learn to respond (by salivating for example) to one kind of stimulus (a circle, for example) and not to another (a square). This process is an example of

A)Generalization
B)Discrimination
C)Acquisition
D)Spontaneous recovery

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5

Early behaviorists believed that for conditioning to occur, the unconditioned stimulus (US) must immediately follow the neutral stimulus (NS). _____ demonstrated this was not always so.

A)The little Albert experiment
B)Pavlov’s experiments with dogs
C)Watson’s behaviorism theory
D)Garcia and Koeling’s taste-aversion studies

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6

Taste-aversion research has shown that animals develop aversions to certain tastes but not to sights or sounds. This finding supports

A)Pavlov’s demonstration of generalization
B)Darwin’s principle that natural selection favors traits that aid survival
C)Watson’s view that study should be limited to observable behavior
D)The early behaviorists’ view that organisms can be conditioned to any stimulus

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7

After Watson and Rayner classically conditioned a small child named Albert to fear a white rat, the child later showed fear in response to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat. Little Albert’s fear of objects resempling the rat illustrates

A)Extinction
B)Generalization
C)Spontaneous recovery
D)Discrimination between two stimuli

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8

Salivating in response to a tone paired with food is a(n) _____; pressing a bar to obtain food is a (n) _____.

A)Primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
B)Conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
C)Operant behavior; respondent behavior
D)Respondent behavior; operant behavior

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9

Thorndike’s law of effect became the basis for operant conditioning and the “behavioral technology” developed by

A)Ivan Pavlov
B)John Garcia
C)B. F. Skinner
D)John B. Watson

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10

1One way to change behavior is to reward natural behaviors in small steps, as they get closer and closer to the desired behavior. This process is called

A)Shaping
B)Punishment
C)Taste aversion
D)Classical conditioning

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11

Your dog is barking so loudly that it’s making your ears ring. You clap your hands, the dog stops barking, your ears stop ringing, and you think to yourself, “I’ll have to do that when he barks again.” The end of the barking was for you a

A)Positive reinforcer
B)Negative reinforcer
C)Punishment
D)Primary reinforcer

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12

The partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable times is a

A)Fixed-interval schedule
B)Variable-interval schedule
C)Fixed-ratio schedule
D)Variable-ratio schedule

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13

A medieval proverb notes that “a burnt child dreads the fire.” In operant conditioning, theburning would be an example of a

A)Primary reinforcer
B)Negative reinforcer
C)Punisher
D)Positive reinforcer

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14

We now know that cognitive processes (thoughts, perceptions, and expectations) play an important role in learning evidence comes from studies in which rats

A)Spontaneously recover previously learned behavior
B)Develop cognitive maps
C)Exhibit respondent behavior
D)Generalize response

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15

Rats carried passively through a maze and given no reward later ran the maze as well as rats that had received food rewards for cunning the maze. The rats that had learned without reinforcement demonstrate

A)Modeling
B)Biological predisposition
C)Shaping
D)Latent

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16

Children learn many social behaviors by imitating parents and other models. This type of learning is called

A)Observational learning
B)Reinforced learning
C)Operant conditioning
D)Classical conditioning

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17

Parents are powerful models of behavior, They are most effective in getting their children to imitate them if

A)Their words and actions are consistant
B)They have outgoing personalities
C)One parent works and the other stays home to care for the children
D)They carefully explain why a behavior is acceptable in adults bu not in children

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18

Bandura believes that modeling is not automatic. Whether a child will imitate a model depends in part on the

A)Child’s family connections to the model
B)Child’s ability to distinguish right from wrong
C)Rewards and punishments received by the model
D)Child’s age in relation to that of the model

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19

There is considerable controversy about the effects of heavy exposure to TV programs showing of violence. However, most experts agree that repeated viewing of TV violence

A)Makes all viewers significantly more aggressive
B)Has little effect on viewers
C)Dulls the viewer’s sensitivity to violence
D)Makes viewers angry and frustrated

...