Chapter 15 Social Psychology Rehearse It!

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We encounter a person who appears to be high on drugs, and we make the fundamental attribution the person’s behavior to

A)Moral weakness or an addictive personality
B)Peer pressure
C)The easy availability of drugs on city streets
D)Society’s acceptance of drug use



We tend to agree to a larger request more readily if we have already agreed to a small request. This tendency is called

A)The fundamental attribution error
B)The foot-in-the-door phenomenon
C)The behavior-follows-attitudes principle



Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that we will act to reduce the discomfort we feel when our actions and attitudes clash. The theory explains why

A)People who act against their attitudes tend to change their attitudes.
B)Attitudes predict actions when social pressures are minimized
C)Changing an attitude – through persuasion – often fails to result in behavior changes



4. Researchers have found that a person is most likely to conform to a group if

A) The group members have diverse opinions
B) The person feels confident and secure
C) The person admires a groups status
D) No one else will observe the person’s behavior



In Milgram’s experiments, the rate of compliance was highest when

A)The victim was at a distance from the “teacher”
B)The victim was close at hand
C)Other “teachers” refused to go along with the experimenter
D)The “teacher” disliked the victim



Social facilitation – improving performance in the presence of others – occurs with

A)Any physical task
B)New learning
C)A well-learned task
D)Competitive sports or activities only



When people are part of a group working toward a common goal, their individual efforts are diminished. Latané and his colleagues called this

A)Minority influence
B)Social facilitation
C)Social loafing
D)Group polarization



In group situations that foster arousal of anonymity, a person sometimes loses self-consciousness and self-control. This phenomenon is called

A)Social loafing
D)Group polarization



If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinion. This effect is called

B)Minority influence
C)Group polarization
D)Social facilitation



When a group’s desire for harmony overrides its realistic appraisal of alternatives, _____ has occurred

A)Group polarization
C)Social facilitation



When we are frustrated, prejudice provides an outlet for our anger and gives us someone to blame. This effect is best described as

A)Ingroup bias
B)Scapegoat theory
C)Vivid-case theory
D)The just-world phenomenon



12. If several well-publicized murders are committed by members of a particular group, we may tend to react with fear and suspicion toward all members of the group. In, other words, we

A) Blame the victim
B) Overgeneralize from vivid, memorable case
C) View the world as just
D) Rationalize the inequality



Aggression is influenced by biology at the genetic, neural, and biochemical levels. Evidense of a biochemical influence on aggression is the finding that

A)Aggressive behavior varies widely from culture to culture
B)Animals can be bred for aggression
C)Stimulation of an area of the brain’s limbic system produces aggressive behavior
D)A higher-than-average level of the hormone testosterone is associated with aggression in males



Studies show that parents of delinquent young people tend to use beatings to enforce discipline. This demonstrates that aggression can be

A)Learned through direct rewards
B)Triggered by exposure to violent media
C)Learned through observation of aggressive models
D)Caused by hormonal changes at puberty



A conference of social scientists studying the effects of pornography unanimously agreed that violent pornography

A)Has little effects on most viewers
B)Is the primary cause of reported and unreported rape
C)Leads viewers to be more accepting of coercism in sexual relationships
D)Has no effect other than, short-term arousal and entertainment



The aspect of X-rated films that most directly influences men’s aggression toward women seem to be

A)Length of the film
B)Eroticism displayed
C)Depictions of sexual violence
D)Attractiveness of the actors



The mere exposure effect helps explain why proximity is a powerful predictor of friendship and marriage, and why, for example, people tend to marry someone

A)About as attractive as themselves
B)Who live or work nearby
C)With whom they enjoy self-disclosure
D)With whom they have an equitable relationship



After vigorous exercise you meet and attractive person, and you are suddenly seized by romantic feelings for that person. This event supports the two-factor theory of emotions, which assumes that emotions such as passionate love consist of physical arousal plus

A)A reward
C)Compassionate love
D)Our interpretation of that arousal



Two vital ingredients in the deep, affectionate attachment of compassionate love are

A)Equity and self-disclosure
B)Proximity and privacy
C)Attractiveness and self-absorption
D)Altruism and excitement



The bystander effect states that a particular bystander is less likely to give aid if

A)The victim is similar to the bystander in appearance
B)No one else is present
C)Other people are present
D)The incident occurs in a deserted or rural area



Social psychologists have attempted to define the circumstances that facilitate conflict resolution. One way of resolving conflicts and fostering cooperation is by giving rival groups superordinate goals, which are

A)The goals of friendly competition
B)Shared goals that override differences
C)Goals for winning at negotiations
D)Goals for increasing conflict though reduced contact.