the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.
Fundamental attribution Error
The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of personal disposition.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.
Central Route to Persuasion
attitude-changing path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
attitude-changing path in which people are influenced by incendental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger requests
a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when are awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.
Normative Social Influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational Social Influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinion about reality
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclination through discussion within the group
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alteration.
unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to a discriminatory
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.
The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
“Us” – people with whom we share a common identity.
“Them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup
the tendency to favor our own group
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race effect
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt of destroy
the principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression
Mere Exposure Effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli inceases liking them
an aroused sate of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined
a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to is
revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others
unselfish reguard for the welfare of others
the tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
Social Exchange Theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, to aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs
an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them
Social Responsibility Norm
an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior
Mutual view often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.
Share goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
Graduated an Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – A strategy designed to decrease international tensions