Chapter 15 Social Psychology Vocabulary

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by Annabelle
778 views
Subjects:
psychology
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Social Psychology

the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

2

Attribution Theory

the theory that we explain someone’s behavior by crediting either the situation or the person’s disposition.

3

Fundamental attribution Error

The tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of personal disposition.

4

Attitude

feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events.

5

Central Route to Persuasion

attitude-changing path in which interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts

6

Peripheral Route to Persuasion

attitude-changing path in which people are influenced by incendental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness

7

Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with larger requests

8

Role

a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave.

9

Cognitive Dissonance Theory

the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when are awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.

10

Conformity

adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard.

11

Normative Social Influence

influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

12

Informational Social Influence

influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinion about reality

13

Social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

14

Social Loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable

15

Deindividuation

the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

16

Group Polarization

the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclination through discussion within the group

17

Groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alteration.

18

Prejudice

unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to a discriminatory

19

Stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people

20

Discrimination

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members.

21

Just-World Phenomenon

The tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

22

Ingoup

“Us” – people with whom we share a common identity.

23

Outgroup

“Them” – those perceived as different or apart from our ingroup

24

Ingroup Bias

the tendency to favor our own group

25

Scapegoat Theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

26

Other-Race Effect

the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races. Also called the cross-race effect and the own-race effect

27

Aggression

any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt of destroy

28

Frustration-Aggression Principle

the principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression

29

Mere Exposure Effect

the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli inceases liking them

30

Passionate Love

an aroused sate of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

31

Companionate Love

The deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined

32

Equity

a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to is

33

Self-Disclosure

revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

34

Altruism

unselfish reguard for the welfare of others

35

Bystander Effect

the tendency of any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present

36

Social Exchange Theory

the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, to aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

37

Reciprocity Norm

an expectation that people will help, not hurt, those who have helped them

38

Social Responsibility Norm

an expectation that people will help those dependent upon them.

39

Conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

40

Social Trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

41

Mirror-Image Perception

Mutual view often held by conflicting people, as when each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive.

42

Superordinate goals

Share goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

43

GRIT

Graduated an Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-Reduction – A strategy designed to decrease international tensions