Medical Terminology- ch. 10a

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1

articulation

place of union between two or more bones; aka joints

2

hematopoiesis

production and development of blood cells, normally in the bone marrow

3

ligaments

connective tissue that surrounds the joints capsule to bind bones to other bones

4

tendons

connective tissue that binds muscle to bone on either side of a joint

5

abduction

moves away from the midline

6

adduction

moves closer to the midline

7

flexion

decreases the angle of a joint

8

extention

increases the angle of a joint

9

rotation

moves a one around its own axis

10

pronation

turns the palm downward

11

supination

turns the palm upward

12

inversion

moves the sole of the foot inward

13

eversion

moves the sole of the foot outward

14

dorsiflexion

elevates (lifts) the foot

15

plantar flexion

lowers the foot (points the toes)

16

short bones

somewhat cube shaped bones

-ex: carpals and tarsals

17

irregular bones

complex shapes which cannot be classified as long or short

-ex: vertebrae, middle ear bones

18

flat bones

flat bones with surface area for muscle attachment

-ex: skull, scapula, sternum

19

long bones

found in the extremities of the body, with regular defined shapes

-ex: humerus, femur, tibia, radius, ulna

20

long bone

(1) diaphysis

the shaft (long main portion) of a long bone

-made of compact bone surrounding the "medullary cavity"

- medullary cavity filled with (yellow) bone marrow

21

long bone

(2) epiphysis

the ends of a long bone

-have a bulbous shape

22

periosteum

dense fibrous membrane which covers bone surface

23

spongy bone

less dense bone filled with red bone marrow

24

osteoblasts

bone FORMING cells

25

osteoclasts

bone BREAKDOWN cells

26

trochanter

large, irregularly shaped process found only on the femur

-ex: greater trochanter of the femur

27

tubercle

small rounded process

-ex: tubercle of femur

28

tuberosity

large rounded process

-ex: tuberosity of the humerus

29

condyle

rounded, articulating knob

-ex: condyle of humerus

30

head

prominent, rounded, articulating end of a bone

-ex: head of femur

31

foramen

rounded opening through a bone to accomodate blood vessels and nerves

-ex: foramen of the skull, where cranial nerves pass

32

fissure

narrow, slit-like opening

-ex:fissure of the sphenoid bone

33

meatus

opening or passage into a bone

-ex: external auditory meatus of the temporal bone

34

sinus

cavity or hollow space in a bone

-ex: cavity of the frontal sinus containing a duct that carries secretions to the upper part of the nasal cavity

35

axial skeleton

skull, ribcage, and vertebral column

36

appendicular skeleton

upper and lower limbs and their girdles