U.S. History Semester 1

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u.s. history
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Lincoln's reconstruction plan--10% plan
(4 steps)

was forgiving
didn't go through and seen as threat to congressional authority
1.offered pardon to any confeds who took oath of allegiance to union and accepted fed policy on slavery
2. denied pardons to all confed military and gov officials and southerners who ad killed AA war prisoners
3. each state could hold a convention for creating new state constitutions after 10% of voters had pledged allegiance
4. states could then hold elections and resume participation


southern whites against reconstruction3. permitted each state to hold a convention to creat ea new state constitution when 10% of voters had sworn allegiance
4.states could then hold elections and resume participation in the Union

resenting the power of freedmen, carpet baggers, an scalawags
criticized reconstruction government as corrupt and incompetent but really it did include both sides--honest and dishonest, qualified and incompetent,etc.



northern republicans who moved to the postwar South
name implied that these people had simply stuffed some clothes into a carpetbag and rushed to the South to profit from southern misery
often depicted as greedy men seeking to grab power or make a fast buck
really, most were honest, educated men



white southern republican--they were seen as traitors
some were former whigs who had opposed secession
some were small farmers who resented the planter class
some others were former planters
many were poor


plessy vs. fergusson

established the principle of separate but equal
later overturned by brown vs. board of education


21st amendment

repealed prohibition (18th amendment)


19th amendment

women's suffrage-the right to vote


18th amendment

ban on sale production and consumption of alcohol


17th amendment

direct senator elections--established direct election of United States Senators by popular vote


16th amendment

congress has right to establish income tax and it did


15th amendment

African American suffrage--the right to vote


13th Amendment

in 1865 this Amendment to the Constitution outlawed slavery.
ecept as punishment from crime


14th Amendment

all are citizens
due process
cannot be denied of the life, liberty, or property
in response to black codes


Reconstruction impact on...



Freedman's Bureau



slaughterhouse Cases in 18873
US vs. Reese in 1876
US vs. Cruikshank in 1876

Supreme Court's decisions in these cases limited the fed gov's ability to protect and civil and voting rights of AAs


4 factors contributing to end of reconstruction

corruption of repub party
economic: reconstruction cos t a lot and southern states were going deep into debt, and national downturn of 1873 diverted attention
violence was used by white demos after fed troops withdrew from south (used it to make people vote for demos)
demos return to power: the solid south (demos) blocked and reversed much reconstruction legislature


Enforcement Actof 1870

banned use of terror, force, bribery to prevent people from voting because of their race, in a series of anti-klan laws, some banned it entirely


Klu Klux Klan

for whites and wanted to get rid of AAs used A LOT of violence--lynching, killing, injuring, burning property against non-whites
also against republican party


New methods of farming: sharecropping vs, tenant farming

sharecropping is where a family farms piece of planter's land, and promise share of crop at harvest time, usually provided with housing, worked under close supervision and threat of harsh punishment, often got trapped in cycle of debt when planters demanded payment for other expenses, so they were trapped
tenant farming is when they pay to rent land and got to choose which crops to plant and when and how much work--higher social status than sharecroppers


the freedmen's Bureau

1st major fed relief agency in US history
in its four year existence from 1865-1869 gave out clothing, medical supplies, millions of meals, and formal education in bureau schools


taste of freedom for freedmen at first

gained freedom of movement, freedom to own land, freedom to worship, and freedom to learn


Presidential election of 1876
Compromise of 1877

hayes (repub) vs tild (demo)
was tied and went to congress
made compromise that hayes would be pres but he had to agree to remove remaining fed troops from south, agree to support appropriations for rebuilding levees along Mississippi River and to give huge subsidies fro southern railroads
end of reconstruction and let demos get back into control of South


Reconstruction Act of 1867

1. put south under military rule--five districts
2. ordered southern sates to hold new election for delegates to create new state constitutions
3. required states to allow all qualified male voters to vote
4, temporarily barred those who had supported confed from voting
5. required guarantee of equal rights to all citizens
6. required ratification of 14th amendment by states


radical (congressional) reconstruction

by radical republicans --goal of civil rights, focus on inequality


black codes

laws that restricted freedmen's rights
curfews-could not gather after sunset
vagrancy laws- if convicted of vagrancy--not working--could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year's labor
labor contracts-freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work
land restrictions-could rent land or homes in rural areas only


W.E.B. DuBois



Johnson's Reconstruction plan

1. pardoned southerners who swore allegiance
2. permitted each state to hold constitutional convention without 10% requirement
3. states required to void secession, abolish slavery, and pay confed debt
4, could then hold elections and rejoin


Booker T. Washington



Johnson's impeachment

tried to fire secretary of war edwin stanton, challenging the tenure of office act passed in 1867
impeached by house but not by senate, finished term w/out power and returned to senate later as a Democrat



loose association of businesses that makes the same product



a company sets out for complete control of an industry, towards end of 1800s fed law prohibited these but there were ways to get around those laws



where an industry is dominated by a few large profitable firms


social darwinism

natural selection and survival of the fittest-- the fit will become rich while the poor will remain por


Andrew carnegie

steel--he had a :gospel of wealth" philosophy that ppl shld b free 2 make as much $ as they can but then give it away to charity, he gave 80% if his fortune away


John rockefeller

standard oil company, gave much $ to charity


robber barons vs. captains of industry

rbs: business leaders who built their fortunes by stealing from the public, supposedly draining country of natural resources and persuading public officials to interpret laws in their favor
cois: suggested they served nation in positive way


teh bessemer process

made it possible for mass steel production starting a new age of building (including the brooklyn bridge)


railroads create national network

transcontinental railroad, used to carry pioneers and and goods
created time zones
improved transport in 3 ways:
faster and more practical means of transporting goods
lower cost of production
creation of national markets


advances in communications



General Electric and Westinghouse Electric

2 companies that produced widespread electricity by the 1890s


george westinghouse

alternating current--cheaper and easier to transport, created a transformer, made home use of electricity practical


lewis latimer

improved lightbulb


thomas edision

helped make electricity available to the public, developed idea of central power station, idea spread by 1890 were many across the country


mid 1800s technological revolution

much convenient technology developed, change daily life and increased productivity overall, patents were established
drilling for oil became profitable because it became very useful


urbanization in north and not really south

cities built up and people moved there for easy to get jobs in factories
in south didn't really happen, most southern factories made earlier stages of production and didn't yield as great a profit


limitation of rights during reconstruction

Plessy v. Ferfuson
Jim Crow Laws
Voting Restrictions-poll tax, literacy tests, impact of AAs