Chapter 13 Psychological Disorders Vocabulary

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1

Psychological Disorders

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thought, feelings and actions

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Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 of one or more of the three key symptoms: extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

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Medical Model

the concept that diseases, In this case psychological disorders, have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured, often through treatment in a hospital.

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DSM-IV-TR

the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Forth Edition, updated as a 2000 “text revision”; a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.

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OCD Advocate

Comedian and TV host Howie Mandel knows the reality of obsessive compulsive disorder. He has used humor to deal with his own challenges and to help others understand the disorder. Mandel also suffers a germ phobia that prompted him to shave his head to “feel cleaner.”

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder in which the person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.

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Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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Phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.

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Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).

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Post-Traumatic stress Disorder (PTSD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weks or more after a traumatic experience.

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Post-Traumatic Growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crisis.

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Somatoform Disorder

Psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a somatic (bodily) form without apparent physical cause.

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Conversion Disorder

a rare somatoform disorder in which a person experiences very specific genuine physical symptoms for which no physiological basis can be found

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Hypochondriasis

a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.

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Dissociative Disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.

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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Formerly called multiple personality disorder.

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Mood Disorder

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes. See major depressive disorder, mania, and bipolar disorder.

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Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities

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Mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.

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Bipolar Disorder

a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.

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Schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions

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Psychotic Disorder

a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.

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Delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorder.

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Personality Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless of a clever con artist