Chapter 12 Personality Rehearse It!

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1

Freud believed that we may block from consciousness the thoughts, wishes, feelings, or memories that are unbearably painful of unacceptable. He called this unconscious process

A)Free association
B)Repression
C)Anxiety
D)Identification

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2

According to Freud’s view of personality structure, the “executive” system, the _____, seeks to gratify the impulses of the _____ in more acceptable ways.

A)ID; Ego
B)Ego; superego
C)Ego; ID
D)ID; superego

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3

Freud proposed that the development of the “voice of conscience” is related to the _____, which internalizes ideals and provides standards for judgement.

A)Ego
B)Superego
C)ID
D)Collective unconscience

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4

According to the psychoanalytic view of development, we all pass through a series of psychosexual stages, such as oral, anal, and phallic stages. Conflicts unresolved at any of these stages may lead to

A)Dormant sexual feelings
B)Fixation in the stages
C)Preconscious blocking of impulse
D)A distorted gender identity

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5

Freud believed that all defense mechanisms disort or disguise reality, and all are

A)Conscious
B)Unconscious
C)Preconscious
D)Rationalization

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6

Projective tests ask test-takers to respond to an ambiguous stimulus, for example, by describing it or telling a story about it. The creator of the well-known projective test that uses inkblots as stimuli was

A)Alfred Adler
B)Karen Horney
C)Sigmund Freud
D)Hermann Rorschach

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7

In general, neo-Freudians such as Adler and Horney accepted many of Freud’s views but placed more emphasis on

A)Developmental thoughout the life span
B)The collective unconscious
C)The role of the ID
D)Social interactions

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8

Psychodynamic theorists and therapists tend to reject Freud’s view that sex is the basis of personality. But they would agree with Freud about

A)The existence of unconscious mental process
B)The Oedipus and Electra complexes
C)The predictive value of Freudian theory
D)The superego’s role as the executive part of personality

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9

Which of the following is not part of the COMTEMPORARY view of the unconscious?

A)Repressed memories of anxiety-provoking events
B)Schemas that influence our perceptions and interpretations
C)Parallel processing that occurs without our conscious knowledge
D)Instantly activated emotions and implicit memories of learned skills

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10

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs proposes that we must satisfy basic physiological and psychological needs before we seek self-actualization. Maslow based his ideas on

A)Freudian Theory
B)His experiences with patients
C)A series of laboratory experiments
D)His study of healthy creative people

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11

The total acceptance Rogers advocated as part of a growth-promoting environment is called

A)Self-concept
B)Unconditional positive regard
C)Self-actualization
D)The “ideal self”

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12

Trait theory describes personality in terms of characteristic behavior patterns, or traits, such as agreeableness or extraversion. A pioneering trait theorist was

A)Sigmund Freud
B)Alfred Adler
C)Gordon Allport
D)Carl Rogers

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13

13.Personality inventories are long questionnaires that ask people to report their characteristic feelings and behaviors. One famous personality inventory is the

A)Extraversion-Introversion
B)Person-Situation Inventory
C)MMPI
D)Rorschach

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14

Which of the following is NOT one of the Big Five personality factors

A)Conscientiousness
B)Anxiety
C)Extraversion
D)Agreeableness

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15

People’s scores on personality tests are only mildly predictive of their behavior. Such tests best predict

A)A person’s behavior on specific occasions
B)A person’s average behavior across many situations
C)Behavior involving a single trait
D)Behavior that depends on the situation or control

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16

The social-cognitive perspective proposes that interacting with our environment involves reciprocal determinism, or mutual influences among personal factors, environmental factors, and behavior. An example of an environmental factor is

A)The presence of books in a home
B)A preference for outdoor play
C)The ability to read at a fourth-grade level
D)The fear of violent action on television

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17

When elderly patients take an active part in managing their own care and surroundings, their morale and health tend to improve. Such findings indicate that people do better when they experience

A)Learned helplessness
B)An external locus of control
C)An internal locus of control
D)Reciprocal determinism

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18

Seligman’s research showed that a dog will respond with learned helplessness if it has received repeated shocks and has had

A)The opportunity to escape
B)No control over the shocks
C)Pain or discomfort
D)No food or water prior to the shocks

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19

Critics say that _____ personality theory is very sensitive to the way people interact with particular situations, but it says little about their enduring traits

A)Psychoanalytic
B)Humanistic
C)Trait
D)Social-cognitive

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20

The spotlight effect is our tendency to

A)Perceive ourselves favorably and perceive others unfavorably
B)Try out many possible selves
C)Become excessively critical when made to feel insecure
D)Overestimate others’ attention to and evaluation of our appearance, performance, and blunders

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21

Researchers have found that low self-esteem tends to be linked with life problems. How should this link be interpreted?

A)Life problems cause low self-esteem
B)The answer isn’t clear because the link is correlational and does not indicate cause and effect
C)Low self-esteem leads to life problems
D)Because of the self-serving bias, we must assume that external factors cause low self-esteem

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22

People tend to accept responsibility for their successes of good qualities and blame circumstances or luck for their failures. This is an example of

A)Low self-esteem
B)Self-actualization
C)Self-serving bias
D)Narcissism

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