upper and lower respiratory drugs

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created 7 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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Pharmacology
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1

antihistamine

  • diphenhydramine

MOA: binds to histamine receptors before histamine can

USE: allergic rhinitis, cold, symptoms, motion sickness

SE/AE: drowsiness, dizziness, hypotension, anticholinergic effects

2

nasal decongestants

  • pseudoephedrine (sudafed)

MOA: decrease nasal congestion by producing vasoconstriction

USE: nasal congestion

SE/AE: hypertension, dysrhythmias, urinary retention, blurred vision, chest tightness, dry nose

3

Expectorant

  • dextromethorphan

MOA: suppress cough. it helps expel mucus by enhancing cough

USE: dry, hacking, nonproductive cough, ease expelling of secretion from LRT

SE/AE: nausea, drowsiness, rash, difficulty breathing

high dose -> hallucination, dissociation, serotonin syndrome

4

expectorant

  • guaifenesin

MOA: loosens bronchial secretion so they can be eliminated by coughing

USE: productive cough

AE: skin rash, headache, N/V

5

sympathomimetic

  • albuterol

MOA: stimulates Beta2 adrenergic receptors in the smooth muscle of bronchi and bronchioles

USE: prevention of bronchospasm, asthma, reversible obstructive airway disease, exercise induced asthma

ADMIN: PO, inhalation. given 1st during asthma attack

SE/AE: muscle tremor, excessive cardiac and CNS stimulation

6

anticholinergic

  • tiotropium

MOA: dilates the bronchi

USE: maintenance treatment of asthma, COPD

SE/AE: dysrhythmias, chest pain, hyperglycemia, urinary retention

not first DOC due to AE. scheduled to be taken everyday regardless of prescription

7

Xanthines

  • theophylline

MOA: relaxes bronchial smooth muscle promoting bronchodilation

USE: second line drug for severe asthma, emphysema, and bronchitis disease

ADMIN: short/long acting forms

AE: narrow therapeutic range, anorexia, cardiac collapse, nervousness

8

Leukotrienes

  • montelukast

MOA: prevents bronchoconstriction

USE: prophylactic treatment for long term treatment of asthma, prevent acute asthma attack

AE: suicidal thoughts, SJS, aggressive behavior, restlesness

9

mast cell stabilizers

  • cromolyn

MOA: prevents release of bronchoconstrictive and inflammatory substance in response to allergens

USE: acute asthma in persistent asthma

SE/AE: rebound bronchospasm is a serous AE. dysrhythmias, hypotension, convulsion, sedation

MUST BE TAKEN DAILY. NOT EFFECTIVE IN ACUTE BRONCHOSPASM OR STATUS ASTHMATICUS

10

mucolytics

  • acethylcysteine

MOA: liquifies and loosens thick secretions

USE: cystic fibrosis, any condition to liquefy thick secretions

ADMIN: nebulization, PO, IV

SE/AE: drowsiness, N/V, bronchospasm