Chapter 10 Motivation Vocabulary

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Motivation
updated 7 years ago by Annabelle
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College: First year
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psychology
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1

Motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

2

Instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unleashed

3

Drive-Reduction Theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

4

Homeostasis

a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level

5

Incentive

a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior

6

Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with psychological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.

7

Glucose

the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. When its level is low, we feel hungry.

8

Set Point

the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and lowered metabolism may act to restore the lost weight.

9

Basal Metabolic rate

the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure

10

Anorexia Nervosa

an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.

11

Bulimia Nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of over-eating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxatives use, fasting, or excessive exercise.

12

Binge-eating Disorder

significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa

13

Sexual Response Cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.

14

Refractory Period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

15

Sexual Disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal of functioning

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Estrogen

sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributing to female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity

17

Testosterone

the most important of male sex hormones. Both males and females have it. But the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty.

18

Sexual Orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)