Chapter 10 Motivation Vocabulary
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unleashed
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with psychological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissue. When its level is low, we feel hungry.
the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and lowered metabolism may act to restore the lost weight.
Basal Metabolic rate
the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of over-eating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxatives use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
significant binge-eating episodes, followed by distress, disgust, or guilt, but without the compensatory purging, fasting or excessive exercise that marks bulimia nervosa
Sexual Response Cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson – excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution.
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal of functioning
sex hormones, such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts by females than males and contributing to female mammals, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, promoting sexual receptivity
the most important of male sex hormones. Both males and females have it. But the additional testosterone in males stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and the development of male sex characteristics during puberty.
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one’s own sex (homosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)