BSCL 2010 Test 1 Review

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1

A good understanding of biological processes:

depends on a background of basic chemistry.

2

Chemicals associated w/ Living organisms

organic

3

organic molecules contain

carbon

(large, stable, complex)

4

distilled water testing is usually:

the control

5

A starch test uses:

Iodine Solution (IKI) reagent

6

The sugar test uses:

Benedict's reagent

7

Benedict's Reagent detects:

reducing sugars because Copper ions in the reagent react with the carbohydrates

8

The Protein test uses:

Biuret reagent

9

Biuret Reagent is strongly:

alkaline

10

The amino acid test uses:

Ninhydrin spray

11

ninhydrin spray should only be used:

under a hood because respiratory sensitivities may have a reasction

12

The Lipid Test uses:

Acetone on brown paper

13

Acetone is a

polar solvent

14

What will/will not dissolve in Acetone?

fatty substances WILL dissolve and form an oily solution

hydrophilic (non-fatty) substances will not dissolve

15

The vitamin C test uses:

a combination of iodine and starch

16

The presence of vitamin C interferes with:

the color reaction between starch and iodine

17

resolution

ability to see things clearly

18

contrast

distinction between light and dark

19

Our campus uses:

monocular compound light microscopes (pass through 2 lenses)

20

compound microscope

the image on a slide will pass through more than one lense

21

mechanical stages

allow slides to be moved easily with knobs

22

parafocal

the images stay nearly in focus when magnifying lenses are switched

23

paracentric

one can predict what will be in view when switching to a higher magnification that has a reduced field

24

brightness control knob

on-off switch

25

stage

where the slide is placed for viewing

26

Slide holder and claw

claw needs to opened to insert slide between the clips

27

"X" and "Y" travel Knobs

move the slide horizontally and vertically

28

ocular lense

lens in the eyepiece, magnifies 10X

29

revolving nose piece

disc is rotated when selecting an objective lens

30

objective lenses

magnifying lenses to further magnify the image

31

Coarse and fine focus knobs

used to adjust the height of stage and bring stage closer to objective lens. Never used at the same time

32

Iris Diaphram

lever laocated 1.5 inches under stage, used to regulate the light reaching the slide

33

Substage Condenser

lens that does NOT magnify. Condenses the image so it can be seen. Should NOT be adjusted for routine microscope usage

34

Red Lens

Scanning

35

Scanning Lens Power and Magnification

LP: 4X

Mag: 40X

36

Ocular Power

10X

37

Scanning Lens Color

Red

38

Low-Power Lens Power and Magnification

LP: 10X

Mag: 100X

39

Low-power lens color

yellow

40

High-power Lens Power and Magnification

LP: 40X

Mag: 400X

41

High-power Lens color

blue

42

Oil Immersion Lens Power and Magnification

LP: 100X

Mag: 1000X

43

Oil Immersion Lens color

white

44

Increasing the magnification reduces:

the depth of field and diameter of field of view

45

Buccal Smear uses

Crystal Violet Stain

46

Onion Skin uses

Iodine

47

Celery skin uses

Janus Green B

48

Janus Green B stains the

mitochondria because it acts as a hydrogen acceptor

49

cells are restricted to a certain size because of:

surface area to volume ratio

50

The tiniest cells are:

prokaryotic and for the most part, bacteria

51

To view bacteria, you must use

the oil immersion lens

52

the largest cells are:

avian yolk cells, ostrich

53

mammalian skeletal muscle fibers length

in humans, can approach a meter, but microscopic in width

54

Red Blood Cells

erythrocytes, lack nuclei in mamals

55

max life for a human RBC

120 days

56

Amphibian RBCs are

nucleated

57

White blood cells

leukocytes, do possess nuclei

58

Slime Molds are

fungal organisms consisting of many nuclei within a single mass

59

Paramecium have two nuclei each, one larger than the other

two nuclei each, one larger than the other

60

The two nuclei in Paramecium are referred to as

macrnuclei

microcuclei

61

human adipose has a scant amount of:

cytoplasm

62

adipose cells resemble

fishnet on its side

63

adipose has a thin rim of ______ and a its ________ at its perimeter

cytoplasm, nucleus

64

sperms cells lose much of their _________ during their development

cutoplasm

65

features that cells to move or move materials across their surfaces include:

cilia, flagella, and pseudopods

66

paramecium is a typical:

ciliated Protistan

67

In the upper respiratory tract of humans ciliated linings create a

"mucus escalator"

68

dinoflagellates have:

two flagella

long one for forward movement and a shorter one for turning

69

ameoba is a protistan which demonstrates

a form of locomotion

70

human liver macrophages are called ____ and use _______ to remove dead tissue

Kupffer, pseudopods

71

diatoms are

protistans which live in both fresh and salt water

72

diatons are adorned with

silica shells called fustules

73

plasma membrane of the cell acts as a barrier to

unwanted materials and an entrance to needed substances

74

cell membranes are said to be differentially permeable because

it only permits the passage of certain materials

75

water can be described as

the universal solvent

76

diffusion and osmosis can be afftected by:

temperature, molecular weight of moving perticles, and concentration gradiens.

77

HCl and NH4OH react to produce

ammonium chloride

78

weight of HCl vs. NH4OH

HCl is about twice as heavy as NH4OH

HCl IS HEAVIER

79

enzymes are

organic catalysts

80

enzymes found in the human body typicall work best at

37oC and pH 7

except in the stomach, pH 2

81

denaturation

when the protein structure unravels and the enzyme no longer functions. it will never return

82

denaturation can be caused by

temperature and pH straying too far away from an enzymes optimal environment

83

the enzyme lactase catalyzes the breakdown of

sugar lactose

84

loctose component sugars

galactose and glucos

85

catalase is an enzyme that:

is produced by most cells to protect them from the damaging effects of hydrogen peroxide by splitting it into water and oxygen gas

86

chemical reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide

2H2O2 2H2O + O2

87

Mitosis phases

prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase,

88

prophase markers

chromatin condenses, nuclear membrane disintegrates, mitotic spindle forms

89

metaphase markers

pairs of sister chromatids align across the equator of the cell

90

anaphase markers

seperation of sister chromatids, chromosomes are drawn to he poles of the cell

91

telophase markers

formation of two cells with their own nucleus, identified by their cell plate or cleavage furrow

92

meiosis is required for

sexually reproducing organisms

93

sex cells are called

gametes

94

spermatogenesis occurs mostly within

the seminiferous tubules in mammalian testes

95

Oogenesis occurs mostly within

mammalian ovaries