AP Practice Chapter 12:

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Personality Theory
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1

Carl jung emphasized the importance of _____ in personality functioning.

A)Unconditional positive regard
B)The collective unconscious
C)Psychosexual stages
D)Inferiority

B)The collective unconscious

2

Jaydon doesn't realize that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both his family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a:

A)Strong ego
B)Weak id
C)Weak ego
D)Strong superego

C)Weak ego

3

Although she is intelligent and a good athlete, Abigail believes that her low grades in school and losing the quartermile racing record are reflections of her own intellectual and athletic incompetence. Her conclusions best illustrate a pessimistic:

A)projection.
B)ideal self.
C)reaction formation.
D)attributional style.
E)Electra complex.

D)attributional style.

4

Freud suggested that adults with a passive and submissive personality marked by a childlike dependency demonstrate signs of:

A)projection.
B)an oral fixation.
C)an inferiority complex.
D)reaction formation.
E)an Oedipus complex.

B)an oral fixation.

5

Abraham Maslow suggested that individuals who are open, spontaneous, and not paralyzed by others' opinions illustrate:

A)reciprocal determinism.
B)extraverion.
C)reaction formation.
D)self-actualization.
E)an external locus of control.

D)self-actualization.

6

Sarah's optimism is both a contributor to and a product of her successful career accomplishments. This best illustrates:

A)the Barnum effect.
B)reciprocal determinism.
C)unconditional positive regard.
D)self-actualization.
E)the spotlight effect.

B)reciprocal determinism.

7

Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:

A)regression.
B)projection.
C)displacement.
D)rationalization.
E)reaction formation.

E)reaction formation.

8

Which technique would psychologists use to assess whether a cluster of characteristics that includes ambition, determination, persistence, and self-reliance reflects a single personality trait?

A)Projective testing
B)Free association
C)Empirically derived testing
D)Factor analysis

D)Factor analysis

9

During a phone call to the Psychic Network, Mark was told that “you often worry about things much more than you admit, even to your best friends.” Mark's amazement at the psychic's apparent understanding of his personality best illustrates:

A)an internal locus of control.
B)reaction formation.
C)reciprocal determinism.
D)the Barnum effect.
E)unconditional positive regard.

D)the Barnum effect.

10

When Vanessa noticed that she was wearing mismatched socks, she overestimated the extent to which others would also notice. Her reaction best illustrates:

A)the spotlight effect.
B)an Electra complex.
C)reciprocal determinism.
D)the Barnum effect.
E)an inferiority complex.

A)the spotlight effect.

11

One of the Big Five personality factors is:

A)reciprocal determinism.
B)self-actualization.
C)individualism.
D)agreeableness.
E)psychoanalysis.

D)agreeableness.

12

Marcy believes that the outcome of athletic contests depends so much on luck that it hardly pays to put any effort into her own athletic training. Her belief most clearly illustrates:

A)an Electra complex.
B)the spotlight effect.
C)the Barnum effect.
D)self-serving bias.
E)an external locus of control.

E)an external locus of control.

13

The role of repressed childhood conflicts in personality disorders is most clearly emphasized by the ________ perspective.

A)trait
B)social-cognitive
C)psychoanalytic
D)humanistic

C)psychoanalytic

14

In 1921, Hermann Rorschach introduced what has become the most widely used ________ test.

A)multiple personality
B)empirically derived
C)thematic apperception
D)factor analytic
E)projective

E)projective

15

Humanistic psychology has been most closely associated with an emphasis on the importance of:

A)free association.
B)empirically derived tests.
C)reciprocal determinism.
D)a positive self-concept.
E)an external locus of control.

D)a positive self-concept.

16

Jaydon lacks any recognition that his alcohol abuse and neglect of his family is leading to the destruction of both family and career. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Jaydon shows signs of a:

A)strong ego.
B)weak id.
C)strong superego.
D)weak ego.

D)weak ego.

17

Which personality test classifies people in terms of the personality dimensions highlighted by Carl Jung?

A)Thematic Apperception Test
B)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
C)Rorschach inkblot test
D)Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

B)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

18

Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:

A)an internal locus of control.
B)free association.
C)collectivism.
D)self-actualization.
E)reciprocal determinism.

C)collectivism.

19

Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:

A)unconditional positive regard.
B)dream interpretation.
C)an external locus of control.
D)factor analysis.
E)reciprocal determinism.

B)dream interpretation.

20

Although Alex has frequently been caught stealing money and other valuables from friends as well as strangers, he does not feel guilty or remorseful about robbing these people. Alex most clearly demonstrates:

A)an inferiority complex.
B)an external locus of control.
C)an Electra complex.
D)a weak superego.
E)an oral fixation.

D)a weak superego.

21

According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:

A)free association.
B)psychosexual development.
C)projective testing.
D)rationalization.
E)hypnosis.

B)psychosexual development.

22

Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates:

A)repression.
B)identification.
C)reaction formation.
D)displacement.
E)projection.

D)displacement.

23

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:

A)rationalization.
B)the Oedipus complex.
C)reaction formation.
D)displacement.
E)repression.

E)repression.

24

According to Abraham Maslow, people are highly motivated to achieve self-actualization ________ they become concerned with their personal safety and ________ they become concerned with achieving self-esteem.

A)before; after
B)after; before
C)before: before
D)after; after

D)after; after

25

Who emphasized the importance of unconditional positive regard in healthy personality development?

A)Freud
B)Allport
C)Bandura
D)Rogers
E)Adler

D)Rogers

26

Ectomorph is to endomorph as ________ is to ________.

A)id; superego
B)thin; plump
C)extraversion; introversion
D)oral stage; phallic stage
E)external locus of control; internal locus of control

B)thin; plump

27

A “lie scale” that assesses the extent to which a person is faking to make a good impression is included in the:

A)TAT.
B)MMPI.
C)Rorschach inkblot test.
D)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

B)MMPI.

28

The temporal stability of personality during adulthood best illustrates the value of the ________ perspective.

A)humanistic
B)psychoanalytic
C)social-cognitive
D)trait

C)social-cognitive

29

Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:

A)the collective unconscious.
B)free association.
C)projective tests.
D)reciprocal determinism.
E)factor analysis.

D)reciprocal determinism.

30

After experiencing prolonged and seemingly inescapable physical abuse from her husband, Kayla became increasingly depressed and hopelessly resigned to her suffering. Her reaction best illustrates:

A)a reaction formation.
B)an Electra complex.
C)unconditional positive regard.
D)learned helplessness.
E)an inferiority complex.

D)learned helplessness.

31

Most college students perceive themselves as less likely than their average classmate to develop drinking problems or drop out of school. This best illustrates:

A)the Barnum effect.
B)unconditional positive regard.
C)the spotlight effect.
D)the false consensus effect.
E)unrealistic optimism.

E)unrealistic optimism.

32

Card players who attribute their wins to their own skill and their losses to bad luck best illustrate:

A)the Barnum effect.
B)an Electra complex.
C)reciprocal determinism.
D)the spotlight effect.
E)self-serving bias.

E)self-serving bias.

33

Defining one's identity in terms of one's extended family or work group is most closely associated with:
A)unconditional positive regard.
B)an external locus of control.
C)an inferiority complex.
D)self-actualization.
E)collectivism.

E)collectivism.

34

Most late adolescents perceive themselves as less vulnerable than their peers to the AIDS virus. This best illustrates:

A)repression.
B)the spotlight effect.
C)reaction formation.
D)unrealistic optimism.
E)an external locus of control.

D)unrealistic optimism.

35

Prior to his use of free association, Freud had encouraged patients to retrieve their forgotten memories by means of:

A)hypnosis.
B)projective tests.
C)psychoactive drugs.
D)fixation.

A)hypnosis.

36

Which theory has been most severely criticized for offering after-the-fact explanations without advancing testable predictions?

A)humanistic theory
B)trait theory
C)psychoanalytic theory
D)social-cognitive theory

C)psychoanalytic theory

37

Morris is hostile, aggressive, and socially destructive. According to Carl Rogers, this behavior pattern results from:

A)reciprocal determinism.
B)cultural influences.
C)the collective unconscious.
D)inborn personality traits.
E)an internal locus of control.

A)reciprocal determinism.

38

Carl Rogers emphasized the importance of:

A)the collective unconscious.
B)unconditional positive regard.
C)personality inventories.
D)reciprocal determinism.
E)free association.

B)unconditional positive regard.

39

Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are:

A)likely to experience low selfesteem.
B)extremely introverted personalities.
C)likely to be academically successful.
D)not easily able to delay gratification of their personal desires.

C)likely to be academically successful.

40

Coping with anxiety by retreating to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier, more infantile stage of development is called:

A)repression.
B)projection.
C)reaction formation.
D)regression.
E)displacement.

D)regression.

41

As her parents became increasingly more abusive toward her, Amity began, with apparent sincerity, to emphatically express her great admiration for her parents. Amity's behavior illustrates most clearly the defense mechanism of:

A)regression.
B)projection.
C)displacement.
D)rationalization.
E)reaction formation.

E)reaction formation.

42

Which perspective most clearly emphasizes the interactive effects of internal personality dynamics and external environmental occurrences on human behavior?

A)trait perspective
B)psychoanalytic perspective
C)socialcognitive perspective
D)humanistic perspective

C)socialcognitive perspective

43

order to identify a relatively small number of the most basic personality traits, trait theorists have used:

A)projective tests.
B)free association.
C)the MMPI-2.
D)factor analysis.

D)factor analysis.

44

Psychoanalytic theory suggests that the ego disguises threatening impulses and reduces anxiety by means of:

A)free association.
B)self-actualization.
C)unconditional positive regard.
D)defense mechanisms.
E)learned helplessness.

D)defense mechanisms.

45

Within the framework of Bandura's reciprocal determinism, an external locus of control refers to a(n): a) behavior.

A)b) genetic predisposition.
B)c) environmental factor.
C)d) cognitive factor.
D)e) defense mechanism.

C)d) cognitive factor.

46

People are most likely to react violently to an insult if they experience ________ self-esteem.

A)unrealistically low
B)moderately low
C)moderately high
D)unrealistically high

D)unrealistically high

47

People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many others do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud's concept of:

A)displacement.
B)reaction formation.
C)regression.
D)projection.
E)fixation.

D)projection.

48

Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula's belief best illustrates:

A)self-serving bias.
B)the spotlight effect.
C)an Electra complex.
D)unconditional positive regard.
E)an internal locus of control.

E)an internal locus of control.

49

Innovation and creativity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture that values:

A)role models.
B)collectivism.
C)nationalism.
D)individualism.
E)free association.

D)individualism.

50

In national surveys, most business executives say they are more ethical than their average counterpart. This best illustrates:

A)reaction formation.
B)an external locus of control.
C)the spotlight effect.
D)self-serving bias.
E)reciprocal determinism.

D)self-serving bias.

51

Projection refers to the process by which people:

A)consciously express feelings that are the opposite of underlying unconscious impulses.
B)disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.
C)retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development.
D)offer self-justifying explanations in place of real, but unacceptable, unconscious reasons for action.

B)disguise unacceptable, unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.

52

In convincing people that they can accurately assess their personalities, astrologers, palm readers, and graphologists take advantage of:

A)factor analysis.
B)the Electra complex.
C)learned helplessness.
D)the Barnum effect.
E)free association.

D)the Barnum effect.

53

When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a college class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates:

A)self-serving bias.
B)an Electra complex.
C)the spotlight effect.
D)reaction formation.
E)reciprocal determinism.

C)the spotlight effect.