Chapter 1 Thinking Critically Vocabuary

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Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
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1

Behaviorism

the view that psychology (1) should be objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental process. Most research psychologist today agree with 1 but not 2

2

Humanistic Psychology

historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth

3

Cognitive Neuroscience

the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language

4

Psychology

The science of behavior and mental process

5

Nature-Nurture issue

the longstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from interaction of nature and nurture

6

Levels of Analysis

the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

7

Biopsychosocial Approach

an integrated approach that incorporates biological to psychological to social-cultural levels of analysis.

8

Basic Research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

9

Applied Research

scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

10

Counseling Psychology

a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being

11

Clinical Psychology

a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

12

Psychiatry

a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.

13

Hindsight Bias

the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it

14

Critical Thinking

thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

15

Theory

an explanation using an integrated set principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

16

Hypothesis

a testable prediction, often implied by theory.

17

Operational definition

a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variable. For example, himan intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.”

18

Replication

repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situation , to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances

19

Case study

an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

20

Survey

a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of a participation group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.

21

Population

all the cases in a group being studied, from which sample can be drawn. (except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population)

22

Random sample

a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.

23

Naturalistic Observation

observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

24

Correlation

the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1

25

Illusory Correlation

the perception of a relationship where none exists.

26

Experiment

a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimentor aims to control other relevant factors

27

Random Assignment

assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups

28

Experimental Group

in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.

29

Control Group

in an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent groups

30

Double-blind Procedures

an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluations.

31

Placebo Effect

experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance of condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.

32

Independent Variable

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

33

Dependent Variable

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.

34

Culture

the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.

35

SQ3R

a study method incorporation five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review