Chapter 1 Thinking Critically Vocabuary
the view that psychology (1) should be objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental process. Most research psychologist today agree with 1 but not 2
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language
The science of behavior and mental process
the longstanding controversy over relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today’s science sees traits and behaviors arising from interaction of nature and nurture
Levels of Analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon
an integrated approach that incorporates biological to psychological to social-cultural levels of analysis.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy.
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that we would have foreseen it
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an integrated set principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a testable prediction, often implied by theory.
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variable. For example, himan intelligence may be operationally defined as “what an intelligence test measures.”
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situation , to see whether the basic findings extends to other participants and circumstances
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes of behaviors of a participation group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
all the cases in a group being studied, from which sample can be drawn. (except for national studies, this does not refer to a country’s whole population)
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1
the perception of a relationship where none exists.
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimentor aims to control other relevant factors
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
in an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
in an experiment the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment of a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluations.
experimental results caused by expectation alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance of condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulation of the independent variable.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
a study method incorporation five steps: Survey, Question, Read, Rehearse, Review