Nutrition Lec Exam 2

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1

The 3 classes of lipid in the body and in foods are

triglycerides, steroids, phospholipids

2

unsaturated fatty acid has at least one

double bond

3

transport vehicles for lipids are called lipoproteins. they are

chylomicrons, LDL, HDL, VLDL

4

A healthy person consuming 2000 calories a day, 30% of daily energy from fat equals to ________ grams of fat

66.67 grams of fat

5

which fats are solid at room temp?

saturated

6

protein functions as

structure, hormone, energy, enzyme

7

urea is formed in? and filtered out of the body through?

formed in liver and filtered thru the kidneys

8

an ex of high quality protein and a low quality protein

high quality- animal

low quality- plant

9

two essential fatty acids are

linolanic and linoleic

10

During metabolism, released energy from energy nutrients is captured in the form of what molecule

ATP

11

The 4 basic units of energy nutrients can be broken down to _____molecule before entering TCA/Kreb cycle to make energy molecule ATP

Acetyl COA

12

Glucose, amino acid and glycerol can be broken down to _____ before becoming acetyl COA

Pyruvate

13

Pyruvate can be converted to _____ in a muscle anaerobically which in turn converted back to glucose in the liver which is called ______ cycle

lactate, Cori

14

A complete digestion of fat (triglyceride) yield _____ and ______

glycerol, fatty acid

15

A person in energy balance means that total energy intake is ___

=

16

_______ initiates eating, _____stops eating and _______ delays eating

Hunger, Satiation, Satiety

17

Normal Range of BMI is between

18-25

18

Major 3 components of energy expenditure are

physical activity, basal metabolism, food consumption

19

A person becomes fat , their cells increase in _______ and _______

size & number

20

A person loses weight resulting in fat cells decreasing in _______ only

size

21

Proteins such as ______ and ______ regulate appetite and energy expenditure

leptin, ghrelin

22

Safe rate for weight loss is ____ lb per week and ___% of total body weight per 6 months

1 lb, 10%

23

In order o lose weight, energy intake must be ____ than energy expenditure

less

24

Calculate the BMI for a basketball player with the weight of 100 kg and height of 2 meters

100/4=25 BMI

25

(T/F) central obesity presents greater health risk than the fat around the lower body

true

26

(T/F) Moderate alcohol consumption is beneficial for age 18-34

false

27

(T/F) some amino acids can be used for glucose during fasting or starvation

true

28

(T/F) blood glucose is always maintained in normal range by supplying glucose either from dietary carbs or liver glycogen

true

29

(T/F) fish is the best source of omega-3 fatty acids in animals

true

30

(T/F) inadequate intake of carbs and fat results in wasting of lean body tissues

true

31

(T/F) constant intake of high protein diet increases calcium excretion and accelerates kidney deterioration

true

32

(T/F)saturated fat and trans fat are bad for health bc they raise blood LDL and lower HDL

true

33

(T/F) the two organs that are most sensitive to alcohol damage besides GI tract are brain and liver

true

34

(T/F) the major diff btw anorexia and bulimia are the extreme restricting dieting in anorexia and binge & purging in bulimia

true

35

lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to their number of

double bonds

36

linoleum acid, an omega 3 fatty acid has it's first double bond on the

third carbon from the methyl end

37

what is a feature of a phospholipid

soluble in both water and fat

38

what is the major sterol in an omnivorous diet

cholesterol

39

which substance CANNOT be absorbed directly Into the blood

long chain fatty acid

40

what lipoprotein is largest in size

chylomicron

41

your roommate bob has just come back from the doctor where he took a blood profile. the doc recc he make dietary changes bc the cholesterol results put him at risk for cardiovascular disease. which is consistent with the diagnosis

low HDL and high LDL

42

which is the following feature of an essential amino acid

it must be supplied by diet

43

what is the process by which heat or acidity disrupts the normal shape of a protein chain

denaturation

44

which of the following is not a characteristic of enzymes

they are involved in synthesis reactions only

45

what is the amino acid pool

a mix of essential and nonessential amino acids derived from protein breakdown and protein intake

46

what is a consequence of excess protein intake

increased production and excretion of urea

47

your dad who has a high blood ammonia concentration, most likely has a poorly functioning

liver

48

What primary factor governs the quality of a food protein

essential amino acid content

49

what is the powerhouSE of the cell

bro lol the MITOCHONDRIA

50

a future of catabolic rxns is that they

involve the release of energy

51

which of the following is not among the functions of the liver

production of RBCs

52

what is the definition of a coenzyme

an organic molecule required for the functioning of an enzyme

53

which of the following metabolic reactions occurs when a cell uses energy

atp releases a phosphate group and becomes adp

54

which of the following outlines the overall sequence of events in the complete oxidation of glucose

glycolysis, tca cycle, etc

55

which of the following cannot be formed from acetyl coa molecules

glucose

56

the cori cycle involves the interconversion of

lactate and glucose

57

fatty acid oxidation results in the direct production on

acetyl coA

58

after digestion and absorption, an amino acid not used to build protein will first be subjected to

removal of its amino group

59

which of the following products is not generated via the TCA cycle or etc

ammonia

60

which of the following is the body first response to the absorption of abundant amounts of carbs

synthesis and storage of glycogen

61

what type of diet is associated with the dvlpmt of ketosis

low carb

62

what is the sequence of stages that brings about advanced liver diseases caused by chronic alcohol toxicity

fatty liver, fibrosis, cirrhosis

63

what is the most satiating macronutrient

protein

64

what instrument is used to measure the content of food

bomb calorimeter

65

which of the following diets promotes the greatest loss of body heat

high protein, low fat

66

what is the main explanation for the diff of BMR between males and females of the same body weight

males have higher percentage of lean body mass

67

Jenny is 34 yo and has the BMI 28. her body type is pear like. John is 55 with the BMI 28 and apple like body. why is John more likely than Jenny to be at risk for degenerative disease

he has central obesity

68

the major cause of insulin resistance is related to

excess body weight

69

what are the 3 most common eating disorders from highest to lowest prevalence

binge eating, bulimia, anorexia

70

what is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating

purging is rarely practiced in binge eating disorder

71

which of the following is a future of anorexia nervosa

frequently results in a BMI less than 17

72

according to the BMI values, what fraction of the US adults population is considered overweight or obese

2/3

73

tom was overweight when he was 13. during puberty he continued to gain weight until 23. tom successfully lost 50 lbs. which of the following most likely happened to toms fat cells

they shrank in size but did not decrease in number

74

which of the following is a characteristic of the lipoprotein lipase enzyme

in men, the enzyme activity is high in abdominal fat cells

75

as a new assistant in a weight loss research lab, you are given a tour of the mouse lab. why is the leptin deficient mouse much largerthan its leptin sufficient counterpart

leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure

76

which of the following isa feature of ghrelin

it stimulates appetite and energy storage

77

compared w non obese people, obese people have a lower

physical activity level

78

to help prevent body fat gain, the DRI suggests daily, moderate intense, physical activities totaling

60 minutes

79

what is the best approach to weigh loss

reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure