AAP Practical #1 Cardiovascular Blood Pressure and Pulse
In a healthy heart, the two ____ contract simultaneously. As they begin to relax, the ventricles contract simultaneously.
the terms systole and diastole refer to events of ventricular _________ and relaxation
The ________ cycle is equivalent to one complete heartbeat—during which both atria and ventricles contract and then relax
Cardiac Cell Cycle is marked by a succession of changes in blood ______ and _________ within the heart.
The average heart beats approximately __ beats per minute, and so the length of the cardiac cycle is about __ second.
During the 0.8s Cardiac Cycle, atrial contraction occupies the first ___ seconds, which is followed by atrial relaxation and ventricular contraction for the next __ second. The remaining ___ second is a period of total heart relaxation, the quiescent period.
Cardiac Cycle: second period of total heart relaxation
Two different types of events control the movement of blood through the heart:
alternate contraction and relaxation of the chambers
opening and closing of valves (from pressure changes in the chambers)
Two distinct sounds can be heard during each cardiac cycle.
The first heart sound (lub) is referred to as S1 and is associated with closure of the AV valves at the beginning of ___________.
The second heart sound (dup), called S2, occurs as the semilunar SL valves close and corresponds with the __________.
end of systole
Abnormal heart sounds are called _______ and often indicate ________ problems.
In valves that do not close tightly, closure is followed by a swishing sound due to the _______ of blood (regurgitation)
Distinct sounds, often described as high-pitched screeching, are associated with the tortuous flow of blood through __________ valves.
The term ______ refers to the alternating surges of pressure (expansion and then recoil) in an artery that occur with each contraction and relaxation of the left ventricle.
This difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is called the ___________.
Normally the pulse rate ______ the heart rate, and the pulse averages 70 to ____ beats per minute in the resting state.
The pulse may be felt easily on any superficial ______.
actually the counting of heartbeats
A large __________ may indicate cardiac impairment (a weakened heart that is unable to pump blood into the arterial tree to a normal extent), low cardiac output, or abnormal heart rhythms.
__________ is defined as the pressure the blood exerts against any unit area of the blood vessel walls, and it is generally measured in the arteries.
Blood Pressure (BP)
Because the heart alternately _____ and ______, the resulting rhythmic flow of blood into the arteries causes the blood pressure to rise and fall during each beat.
Thus you must take two blood pressure readings:
which is the pressure in the arteries at the peak of ventricular contraction
which reflects the pressure during ventricular relaxation.
120/80 translates to 120 over 80, or a systolic pressure of _____ mm Hg and a diastolic pressure of ______ mm Hg