AAP Practical #1 Veins, Arteries

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1

carry blood away from the heart

arteries

2

drain the tissues and return blood to the heart

veins

3

Lines the lumen of a vessel

tunica intima

4

In general, the walls of _______ are thicker than those of ______.

arteries

veins

5

Tunica Lutima:

Its cells fit closely together, forming an extremely smooth blood vessel lining that helps decrease ________________.

resistance to blood flow

6

middle coat, composed primarily of smooth muscle and elastin.

Tunica media

7

Tunica Media:

The smooth muscle plays an active role in regulating the diameter of blood vessels, which in turn alters __________________.

peripheral resistance and blood pressure

8

Outermost tunic, composed of areolar or fibrous connective tissue.

Tunica Externa

9

What is the function of the Tunica Externa?

its protective and supportive

10

In larger vessels, the tunica externa contains a system of tiny blood vessels, the ____________.

vasa vasorum

11

Tunica Intima:

Its cells fit closely together, forming an extremely smooth blood vessel lining that helps decrease ________________.

resistance to blood flow

12

Except for the microscopic capillaries, the walls of blood vessels are constructed of three ______.

tunics or coats

tunica intima, media, externa

13

Largest, most elastic arteries. Contain more elastic tissue than other arteries.

Elastic (conducting) arteries

Examples: aorta, brachiocephalic artery, and common carotid artery.

14

Medium-sized arteries, accounting for most arteries found in the body. They have less elastic tissue and more smooth muscle than other arteries.

Muscular (distributing) arteries

Examples: brachial artery and radial artery.

Better ability to constrict and less stretchable than elastic arteries. They distribute blood to specific areas of the body.

15

Smallest arteries with a very thin tunica externa and only a few layers of smooth muscle in the tunica media.

Arterioles

They play a role in regulating the blood flow to specific areas of the body.

Act as a pressure reservoir, expanding and recoiling for continuous blood flow.

16

Contain only a tunica intima.

Capillaries

Provide for the exchange of materials (gases, nutrients, etc.) between the blood and tissue cells.

17

Smallest veins. All tunics are very thin, with at most two layers of smooth muscle and no elastic tissue.

Venules

Drain capillary beds and merge to form veins.

18

Contain more fibrous tissue in the tunica externa than corresponding arteries. The tunica media is thinner, with a larger lumen than the corresponding artery.

Veins

Low-pressure vessels; return blood to the heart. Valves prevent the backflow of the blood.

19

Valves in veins act to prevent ______ of blood in much the same manner as the semilunar valves of the heart.

backflow

20

What three things help pump blood through the veins?

valves in the veins

skeletal muscle contraction acts as a pump

pressure changes from breathing

21

the largest artery of the body

aorta

22

Some of the newly oxygenated blood perfuses the liver, but the larger proportion is ducted through the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava via a shunt vessel called the ____________.

lductus venosus

23

As the descending aorta travels from T5 to T12, it penetrates the diaphragm to enter the abdominal cavity just anterior to the vertebral column. This portion is called _______.

Thoracic Aorta

24

As the descending aorta enters the abdominal cavity, it becomes the ___________.

abdominal aorta

25

ascending aorta branches (2):

right coronary artery-serves myocardium

left coronary artery-serves myocardium

26

Aortic arch branches (4-5):

(brachiocephalic trunk)-right common carotid

(brachiocephalic trunk)-right subclavian artery

left common carotid artery

left subclavian artery

27

Aortic arch branches (4-5) SERVES:

right and left common carotid arteries

right and left subclavian arteries

CCA-right and left side of the head and neck

SA-right and left upper limb

28

Visceral Thoracic Aortic Branches (4):

Pericardial arteries-pericardium

Bronchial arteries-bronchi and lungs

Esophageal arteries-esophagus

mediastinal arteries-posterior mediastinum

29

Tunica Intima:

Its cells fit closely together, forming an extremely smooth blood vessel lining that helps decrease ________________.

resistance to blood flow

30

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Inferior surface of the diaphragm

inferior phrenic arteries

31

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

The distal abdominal aorta splits to form the left and right ____________, which serve the pelvic organs, lower abdominal wall, and the lower limbs

Common iliac arteries

32

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Branches to the spleen; short gastric arteries branch to the stomach; and the left gastroepiploic artery branches to the stomach

Celiac trunk: splenic artery

33

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Branches into the hepatic artery proper (its branches serve the liver, gallbladder, and stomach) and the gastroduodenal artery (its branches serve the stomach, pancreas, and duodenum)

Celiac trunk: common hepatic artery

34

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Most of the small intestine and the first part of the large intestine

Superior mesenteric artery

35

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

adrenal glands that sit on top of the kidneys

Middle suprarenal arteries

36

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Kidneys

Renal Arteries

37

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Ovarian arteries (female) – ovaries

Testicular arteries (male) – testes

Gonadal arteries

38

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Distal portion of the large intestine

Inferior mesenteric artery

39

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Posterior abdominal wall

Lumbar arteries

40

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

Sacrum and coccyx

Median sacral artery

41

Abdominal Aorta what branch:

The distal abdominal aorta splits to form the left and right common iliac arteries, which serve the pelvic organs, lower abdominal wall, and the lower limbs

Common iliac arteries

42

the first branch of the aortic arch

the brachiocephalic trunk (means arm-head)

43

The other two major arteries branching off the aortic arch are __________ and _________.

left common carotid artery

left subclavian artery

44

The brachiocephalic trunk persists briefly before dividing into the ___________ and ___________.

right common carotid artery

right subclavian artery

45

The common carotid artery on each side divides to form an _______ and an ________ carotid artery.

internal

external

46

artery that serves the brain and gives rise to the ophthalmic artery

internal carotid artery

47

Fetal: Much of the blood entering the right atrium is shunted into the left atrium through the ________.

foramen ovale

48

The right and left subclavian arteries each give off several branches to the ____________.

head and neck

49

In the armpit, the subclavian artery becomes the axillary artery, which serves the ___________.

upper limb

50

The brain is supplied by two pairs of arteries arising from the region of the aortic arch

internal carotid artery

vertebral arteries

51

The paired vertebral arteries diverge from the ___________ and pass superiorly through the foramina of the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae to enter the skull through the foramen magnum.

subclavian arteries

52

As the _______________ runs through the axilla, it gives off several branches to the chest wall and shoulder girdle

axillary artery

53

At the inferior edge of the teres major muscle, the axillary artery becomes the ___________ as it enters the arm.

brachial artery

54

At the elbow, the brachial artery divides into the _____________.

radial and ulnar arteries

55

Most of the branches of the abdominal aorta serve the __________.

abdominal organs

56

Each of the common iliac arteries extends into the pelvis before it divides into the ________________.

internal and external iliac arteries

57

The internal iliac artery supplies the _______________.

gluteal arteries

58

The __________ supplies the anterior abdominal wall and the lower limb.

external iliac artery

59

As the external iliac artery continues into the thigh, its name changes to __________.

femoral artery

60

The femoral artery gives off a deep branch, the ____________ which is the main supply to the thigh muscles (hamstrings, quadriceps, and adductors)

deep femoral artery

61

The ________ supplies the dorsum of the foot and continues on as the arcuate artery.

dorsalis pedis artery

62

The is often palpated in patients with circulation problems of the leg to determine the circulatory efficiency to the limb as a whole.

dorsalis pedis artery

63

Veins draining the head and upper extremities empty into the ____________.

superior vena cava

64

Veins draining the lower body empty into the _____________.

inferior vena cava

65

Inferior vena cava begins in the lower abdominal region with the union of the paired ____________, which drain venous blood from the legs and pelvis.

common iliac veins

66

Each common iliac vein is formed by the union of the internal iliac vein, draining the _______, and the external iliac vein, which receives venous blood from the _______.

pelvis

lower limb

67

Vein that crosses the back of the knee.

popliteal vein

68

The popliteal vein becomes the _________ in the thigh.

femoral vein

69

The femoral vein becomes the __________ in the inguinal region.

external iliac vein

70

The ____________, a superficial vein, is the longest vein in the body.

great saphenous vein

71

Great saphenous vein and Small saphenous vein are attached in the foot by the _________.

dorsal venous arch

72

The popliteal vein becomes the _______ in the thigh, this vein, in turn, becomes the ________ in the inguinal region.

femoral vein

external iliac vein

73

the inferior vena cava receives blood from the posterior abdominal wall via several pairs of ________, and from the right ovary or testis via the RIGHT ___________.

lumbar veins

right gonadal veins

74

___________ drains into the left renal vein superiorly.

Left gonadal vein

75

the inferior vena cava receives blood from the posterior abdominal wall via several pairs of lumbar veins, and from the right ovary or testis via the RIGHT ___________.

right gonadal veins

76

Diffusion of the respiratory gases occurs across the walls of the alveoli and pulmonary ________.

capillaries

77

________ empties into the left renal vein inferiorly.

Left suprarenal

78

The _______ drain the liver.

hepatic vein

79

The unpaired veins draining the digestive tract organs empty into a special vessel, called what?

hepatic portal vein

80

Hepatic portal vein carries blood to the ______ to be processed before it enters the systemic venous system.

liver

81

The right and left brachiocephalic veins drain the ______, _______, and upper extremities and unite to form the ___________.

head, neck

superior vena cava

82

Notice that although there is only ____ brachiocephalic artery, there are _____ brachiocephalic veins.

one

two

83

Branches of the brachiocephalic veins include the ________, vertebral, and _______ veins.

internal jugular

subclavian

84

The internal jugular veins are large veins that drain the ___________ and other dural sinuses of the brain.

superior sagittal sinus

85

The ________ receive venous blood from the upper extremity.

subclavian veins

86

The ___________ joins the subclavian vein near its origin to return the venous drainage of the extracranial (superficial) tissues of the head and neck.

external jugular vein

87

As the subclavian vein passes through the axilla, it becomes the _______ and then the _______ as it courses along the posterior aspect of the humerus.

axillary vein

brachial vein

88

Pulmonary circulation differs from systematic circulation in that it does not serve the metabolic needs of the tissues it interacts with (the lungs). It functions only to bring the blood to the alevoli of the lungs for _________.

gas exchange

89

The superficial venous drainage of the arm includes which veins?

cephalic vein

basilic vein

median cubital vein

median antebrachial vein

90

the cephalic vein courses along the lateral aspect of the arm and empties into the ________

axillary vein

91

this vein is found on the medial aspect of the arm and entering the brachial vein

basilic vein

92

the vein that runs between the cephalic and basilic veins in the anterior aspect of the elbow

median cubital vein

93

this vein is often the site of choice for removing blood for testing purposes

median cubital vein

94

this vein lies between the radial and ulnar veins, and terminates variably by entering the cephalic or basilic vein at the elbow.

median antebrachial

95

system that drains the intercostal muscles of the thorax and provides an accessory venous system to drain the abdominal wall.

azygos system

96

Pulmonary circulation differs from systematic circulation in that it does not serve the ________ needs of the tissues it interacts with (the lungs). It functions only to bring the blood to the alevoli of the lungs for _________.

metabolic

gas exchange

97

The functional blood supply of the lungs is provided by the ________, which diverge from the ______ portion of the descending aorta.

bronchial arteries

thoracic

98

Pulmonary circulation begins with the large _________, which leaves the right ventricle and divides into the right and left __________.

pulmonary trunk

pulmonary arteries

99

Diffusion of the respiratory gases occurs across the walls of the _______ and pulmonary ________.

alveoli

capillaries

100

Because fetal lungs are nonfunctional and collapsed, two shunting mechanisms ensure that blood almost entirely bypasses the lungs:

ductus arteriosus

formamen ovale

101

Fetal blood travels through the umbilical cord, which contains three blood vessels: one large ______ and two smaller _________.

umbilical vein

umbilical arteries

102

The umbilical vein carries blood rich in ______ and _____ to the fetus.

nutrients

oxygen

103

The umbilical arteries carry blood laden with ________ and waste from the fetus to the _________.

carbon dioxide

placenta

104

The umbilical arteries, which transport blood away from the fetal heart, meet the umbilical vein at the ______ and wrap around the vein within the cord en route to their placental attachments.

umbilicus

105

Newly oxygenated blood flows in the _____________ superiorly toward the fetal heart.

umbilical vein

106

Some of the newly oxygenated blood perfuses the ____, but the larger proportion is ducted through the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava via a shunt vessel called the ____________.

liver

ductus venosus

107

Because fetal lungs are nonfunctional and collapsed, two shunting mechanisms ensure that blood almost entirely bypasses the lungs:

ductus venosus

formane ovale

108

Fetal: Much of the blood entering the right atrium is shunted into the left atrium through the ________.

formane ovale

109

Fetal: a flaplike opening in the interatrial septum

formane ovale

110

In a developing fetus, the lungs and digestive system are not yet functional, and all nutrient, excretory, and gaseous exchanges occur through the ___________.

placenta

111

The only fetal vessel that carries highly oxygenated blood is the ________.

All other vessels contain varying degrees of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.

umbilical vein

112

At birth the foramen ovale closes and becomes the _________, and the ductus arteriosus collapses and is converted to the fibrous __________.

fossa ovalis

ligamentum arteriosum

113

Remnants of the umbilical arteries persist as the __________ on the anterior abdominal wall.

medial umbilical ligaments

114

After birth, the umbilical vein becomes the ______________.

ligamentum teres (or round ligament of the liver)

115

After birth, the ductus venosus becomes a fibrous band called the _________ on the inferior surface of the liver.

ligamentum venosum

116

Blood vessels of the hepatic portal circulation drain the digestive _______, __________, and __________.

viscera

spleen

pancreas

117

Blood vessels of the hepatic portal circulation deliver blood to the liver for processing via the ________________.

hepatic portal vein

118

which vein is formed by the union of the splenic and superior mesenteric veins

hepatic portal vein

119

If a meal has recently been eaten, the hepatic portal blood will be ________-rich.

nutrient

120

In the liver, _________ are detoxifying alcohol and other possibly harmful chemicals present in the blood

hepatocytes

121

The liver is drained by the ________ veins that enter the inferior vena cava.

hepatic

122

The ______ is the key body organ involved in maintaining proper sugar, fatty acid, and amino acid concentrations in the blood

liver

123

The _______ vein carries blood from the spleen, parts of the pancreas, and the stomach.

splenic vein

124

The splenic vein unites with the ______________ to form the hepatic portal vein.

superior mesenteric vein

125

The __________ drains the small intestine, part of the large intestine, and the stomach.

superior mesenteric vein

126

The ______________ drains the distal portion of the large intestine and rectum

inferior mesenteric vein

127

The inferior mesenteric vein empties into the splenic vein just before the splenic vein merges with the __________.

superior mesenteric vein

128

why are valves present in veins but not in arteries

veins need valves to create pressure to pump the blood to the heart. valves assist in returning venus blood to the heart.

129

name two events occurring within the body that aid in venous return

muscular pump (milking action of skeletal muscle)

respiratory pump (thoracic cavity pressure)

130

why are the walls of arteries proportionately thicker than those of the corresponding veins

because arteries are closer to the pumping action of the heart, their walls must be strong enough to take the changes in pressure.

131

Some of the newly oxygenated blood perfuses the liver, but the larger proportion is ducted through the relatively nonfunctional liver to the inferior vena cava via a shunt vessel called the ____________.

ductus venosus

132

two paired arteries serving the brain

internal carotid

vertebral arteries

133

longest vein in the lower limb

great saphenous vein

134

artery on the dorsum of the foot checked after leg surgery

dorsal pedis

135

serves the posterior thigh

deep artery of the thigh

136

supplies the diaphragm

phrenic artery

137

formed by the union of the radial and ulnar veins

brachial veins

138

two superficial veins of the arm

basilic veins

cephalic veins

139

artery serving the kidney

renal arteries

140

veins draining the liver

hepatic veins

141

artery that supplies the distal half of the large intestine

inferior mesenteric arteries

142

drains the pelvic organs

internal iliac veins

143

what the external iliac artery becomes on entry into the thigh

femoral artery

144

major artery serving the arm

brachial artery

145

supplies most of the small intestine

superior mesenteric artery

146

join to form the inferior vena cava

common iliac vein

147

an arterial trunk that has three major branches, which run to the liver, spleen and stomach

celiac trunk

148

major artery serving the tissues external to the skull

external carotid artery

149

three veins serving the leg

anterior tibial vein

fibular vein

posterior tibial vein

150

artery generally used to take the pulse at the wrist

radial artery