labs and meds summary respiratory and neuro
sputum sample for acid-fast bacillus
- to check for bacteria that causes TB
- it is done 3 times with morning sputum on 3 different days in a row
- it can increaes if patient is on PO or IV corticosteroids
antibiotics for bacterial pneumonia
- macrolides - azythromycin
- fluoroquinolones - levofloxacin
- B lactams - cefepime, ceftriaxone
treatment of TB
- compliance with medication is essential. otherwise the patient can build resistance
if latent TB, what medication must patient take? for how long?
isoniazid for 6-9months
if active TB, what medication must patient take? for how long?
take all 4 meds for 6-9 months
- for latent or active TB
- monitor liver enzymes while on this med; they can increase side effect. avoid alcohol
- for active TB
- it can turn body fluid orange
pyrazinamide (PZA) and ethambutol(myambutol)
for active TB
what is the antidote for heparin drip IV?
- for treatment of DVT/PE
- given PO. monitor INR (therapeutic range between 2-3)
- antidote is vitamin K
albuterol and ipratropium
- bronchodilators given for asthma or COPD
- inhalers for routine maintenance, nebulizers during exacerbations
- monitor for tachycardia and hypertension
- inhaled corticosteroid taken daily for routine maintenance for asthma and COPD.
- rinse mouth after use to prevent thrush.
if you have to take bronchodilator and corticosteroid inhalers at the same time... which one do you take first? why?
take bronchodilators first to open airways
- IV corticosteroid for severe asthma or COPD exacerbations.
- monitor for hypertension and hyperglycemia with PO and IV corticosteroids
- do not stop abruptly
leukotriene modifiers for asthma. PO daily
- for fungal pneumonia
- given IVPB slowly over 6 hours
- not compatible with normal saline
what medications do you premedicate with before giving amphotericin B
acetaminophen, diphenhydramine, and prednisone to reduce risk of hypersensitivity reaction
- for myasthenia gravis crisis
- given IVB slowly
- only used for MG during crisis
to slow progression of ALS, only for a few months
- for high cholesterol.
- monitor liver enzymes routinely while on this medication
low-dose aspirin; clopidogrel
- decrease platelet aggregation to keep clots from forming
- cardiac prophylaxis to prevent MI and stroke
- monitor for signs of GI bleeding