Chapter 7 Pt 2

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Microbiology
Chapter 7
Effective Chemical Methods
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1

Most resistant to least resistant

  1. Endospores
  2. Mycobacteria
  3. Pseudomonas
  4. Gram Negative
  5. Protozoan Cysts
  6. Non-Envelope Viruses
2

Factors related to effective chemical methods of microbial control

  • type of microbe
  • concentration of chemical agent
  • organic matter
  • pH of medium
  • time of exposure
  • ideally want a smooth surface to disinfect
3

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds (QUATS)

  • most effective against gram positive bacteria
  • ineffective against endospores and mycobacterium
  • Virucidal against enveloped viruses
  • common uses: general use, surfaces, mouth wash
4

surface active agents or surfactants

acid-anionic detergents: sanitizing, used in dairy industry

QUATS (catatonic detergents): bactericidal, denature proteins, disrupt plasma membrane

5

Alcohol: Ethanol & Isopropanol

  • mode of action: denatures protein & dissolves lipids
  • acts on plasma membrane
  • used widely in biopharmasutical industries, drys quickly
  • not effective against endospores and non-envelope viruses
  • bacillus grows in it
  • used: surfaces, not best for cuts
6

Halogens: Iodine & Chlorine

  • oxidizing agents, inhibits protein function = cell death
  • available as a tincture & iodophor
  • bleach is hypochlorous acid (HOCl)
  • chlorine gas to disinfect recreational water and drinking water
7

tincture

mix something with alcohol; used for minor cuts

8

idophor

  • iodine coupled with something organic
  • used in surgery, skin prep
  • disadvantage: staining and drying
  • ex. betadine
9
  • di

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