Chapter 5 Tissues Part 2

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1

Type: Simple Squamous

Endothelium of blood vessales

2

Type: Simple Cuboidal

Renal proximal convoluted tuble

3

Type: Simple columnar

Small intestine

4

Type: Pseudo. Col. w/ cilia

Trachea

5

Type: Pseudo. Col. w/ stereocilia

Epididymis

6

Type: Stratified squamous

Vagina

7

Type: St. Sq keratinzed

epidermis

8

Type: stratified cuboidal

sweat glands

9

Type: stratified columnar

prostatic urethra

10

Type: transitional

urinary bladder

11

When skin exposed to excessive sunlight____________loses its elasticity and becomes stiff and leathery. In time it may sag and wrinkle.

Connective Tissue

12

Fiber Types

Collagen

13

Structure of Collagen

Fibers are composed of many smaller fibers, which are made up of subunits called tropocollagen

tropocollagen fibers are arranged end to end in long rows

between rows they are arranged in a quarter stagger

14

Synthesis is conducted by

fibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and epithelia cells

15

Synthesis is assembled on

ribosome bound to endoplasmic reticulum

16

Synthesis is held together by

covalent bonds AFTER they assemble into fibers. Initially held together by weaker.

17

Different types of synthesis have

varying cross-linking, higher 3 of linking increases the strength of the bond

18

Synthesis involves

at least a dozen enzymes for collagen occurring in bones, ligaments. and tendons. Mutations result in Marfans syndrome , elastic skin syndrome.

19

Marfan Syndrome

inherited disorder affecting every 1 in 10,000. Results in abnormalities of connective tissue. Victims are usually tall, lean, have unusual curvature of the bones as well as weak aorta.

20

Collagen is the most widely distributed

protein in the body

21

Elastic Fibers structure

amorphous(shapeless) component, which contains protein elastin , which can stretch up to 50% of its length

22

Elastic Fibers synthesis

elastin cross-links

23

Elastic Fibers distribution

found in areas subject to stretching(skin, CV, and resp.), special stains are needed to reveal under microscope

24

Reticular fibers structure

consists of collagen, plus some glycoprotein, forms then branching networks, provide support and strength(like collagenous fibers), and form stroma(structure) of many soft organ

25

fibroblast

large, flat cells with branching processes that form fibers and the intercellular substances

26

adipocytes

fat cells

27

blood cells

(including macrophages, plasma cells, mast cells, red blood cells)

28

aponeuroses

special, sheetlike tendons connection one muscle with another or with a bone

29

ligaments

hold bones together at joints

30

membrane

combination of an epithelial

31

Ground Substances: proteoglycans

macromolecules composed of mostly carbohydrates

32

Ground Substances: glycoproteins

macromolecules composted mostly of proteins, with highly variable carbohydrates chains attached to the central core of the protein

33

Amorphous contains

minerals

34

Type of connective tissue: Embryonic

Mesenchyme

embryonic tissue from which all other connective tissues arise(a few of these persist in adult tissue, usually around blood vessels where they differentiate into fibroblasts to assist in wound healing)

35

Type of connective tissue: Embryonic

muscous connective tissue(whartons jelly)

found in the umbilical chord of fetus, supports the wall of the chord

36

Adult

Connective Tissue Paper

loose(areolar)

description:

description: consists of fibers(all three types) and several types of cells(fibroblasts, macrophages, plasma cells, adipocytes, and mast cells) embedded in a semifluid ground substance

37

Intercellular substances contain so much hyaluronic acid. The thick consistency of this impedes the movement of some drugs. The enzyme________________is injected to reduce the viscosity of the acid. Some Bacteria produce, white blood cells, and sperm produce Hyaluronidase.

Hyaluronidase

38

Adult
Connective Tissue Paper
loose(areolar)

location

subcutaneous layer of skin, mucous membranes, blood nerves, and body organs

39

Adult
Connective Tissue Paper
loose(areolar)

function:

strength, elasticity, and support

40

Adipose

description:

adipocytes: "singet ring" shaped cells with peripheral nuclei. These cells contain an enzyme that catalyze fatty acid synthesis from glucose during times of nutritional excess.

41

Adipose

location:

subcutaneous layer of skin, around heart and kidneys, marrow of long bones and around joints

42

Adipose

function:

reduce heat loss, energy storage, protects

43

suction lipectomy

suctioning out small amounts of fat from a given area. This does not result in permanent removal(fat can return). Complications include fat emboli(clots) infection, damage to internal organs, and fluid depletion

44

Dense(collagenous)

description

predominantly collagenous fiber arranged in bundles; fibroblasts in rows between bundles

45

Dense(collagenous)

location

lung tissue, wall of arteries, trachea, bronchial tubes, true vocal chords, and ligamenta flava vertabae

46

Dense(collagenous)

function

forms stroma of organs; binds smooth muscle tissue together

47

Vascular

blood

48

cartilage

in general, consists of a dense network of fibers Imbedded in CHONFROITIN SULFATE- a jellylike intercellular substance(matrix).

49

Cells isolate themselves into separate compartments called

lacunae

50

Cells with the potential to secrete the matrix are called

chondroblasts

51

cells that have walled themselves off are called

chondrocytes

52

The surface of cartilage is surrounded by dense tissue called the

perichondrium(peri"around")

53

Hyaline

description

also called "gristle" contains many chondrocytes; most abundant type of catilage

54

hyaline

location

ends of long bones, ends of ribs, nose, parts of larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchial tubes, embryonic skeleton

55

hyaline

function

movement at joints, flexibility, support

56

fibrocartilage

description

chondrocytes scattered among bundles of collagenous fibers

57

fibrocartilage

location

symphysis pubis, intervertebral discs, and menisci of knee

58

fibrocartilage

function

support and fusion

59

elastic

description

chondrocytes in a threadlike network of elastic fibers

60

elastic

location

epiglottis, external ear, eustachian tubes

61

elastic

function

support, maintain shape

62

osseous

bone