Microbiology: Chapter 1 - Vocab

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All vocabulary words are found in chapter one/glossary.
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1

microbiology

a specialized area of biology that deals with livings things ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses.

G-11

2

ubiquitous

ubique, everywhere and ous, having, being, seeming to be, everywhere at the same time.

ch1, p2

3

microscopic

invisible to the naked eye.

G-11

4

microorganisims
(see microbes)

a living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification; an organism of microscopic size.

G-11

5

microbes
(see microorganisims)

a living thing ordinarily too small to be seen without magnification; an organism of microscopic size.

G-11

6

• bacteria

• Bacteria

• category of prokaryotes with peptidoglycan in their cell walls and a single, circular chromosome. This group of small cells is widely distributed in the earth's habitats.

• when capitalized refers to one of the three domains of living organisms as proposed by Woese, containing all non-archaea prokaryotes.

G-2

7

virus

microscopic, acellular agent composed of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.

G-18

8

fungi

heterotrophic unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organism that may take the form of a larger macroscopic organism, as in the case of mushrooms, or a smaller microscopic organism, as in the case of yeasts and molds.

G-7

9

protozoa

A group of single-celled, eukaryotic organisms.

G-14

10

algae

photosynthetic, plantlike organisms that generally lack the complex structure of plants; they may be single celled or multicellular and inhabit diverse habitats such as marine and freshwater environments, glaciers, and hot springs.

G-1

11

helminths

A term that designates all parasitic worms.

G-8

12

prokaryotic cell

Small cells, lacking special stuctures such as nucleus and organelles. All prokaryotes are microorganisms.

G-14

13

eukaryotic cell

a cell that differs from a prokaryotic cell chiefly by having a nuclear membrane (a well-defined nucleus), membrane-bounded subcellular organelles, and mitotic cell division.

G-6

14

organelles

a small component of eukaryotic cells that is bounded by a membrane and specialized in function.

G-12

15

photosynthesis

A process occuring in plants, algae, and some bacteria that thraps the sun's energy and converts it to ATP in the cell. This energy is used to fix CO2 into organic compounds.

G-13

16

decomposition

the breakdown of dead matter and wastes into simple compounds that can be directed back into the natural cycle of living things.

G-5

17

genetic engineering

a field involving deliberate alterations (recombinations) of the genomes of microbes, plants, and animals through special technigogical processes.

G-7

18

recombinant DNA

A technology, associated with gentic engineering that deliberately modifies the genetic structure of an organism to create novel products, microbes, animals. plants, and viruses.

G-15

19

bioremediation

the use of microbes to reduce or degrade pollutants, industrial wastes, and household garbage.

G-3

20

parasite

An organism that lives on or within another organism (the host), from which it obtains nutrients and enjoys protection. The parasite produces some degree of harm to the host.

G-13

21

host

organism in which smaller organisms or viruses live, feed and reproduce.

G-8

22

pathogen

Any agent-usually a virus, bacterium, fungus, protozoan, or helminth-that causes disease.

G-13

23

emerging disease

newly identified diseases that are becoming more prominent.

G-5

24

reemerging diseases

previously identified disease that is increasing in occurence.

G-15

25

spontaneous generation

early belief that living things arose from vital forces present in nonliving, or decomposing, matter.

G-16

26

abiogenesis

the belief in spontaneous generation as a source of life.

G-1

27

biogenesis

belief that living things can only arise from others of the same kind.

G-3

28

scientific method

Principles and procedures for systematic pursuit of knowledge, involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of a hypothesis.

G-16

29

hypothesis

A tentative explanation of what has been observed or measured.

G-9

30

deductive approach

is the most common way to apply the scientific method.

Ch1-p14

31

theory

A collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event.

G-17

32

sterile

completely free of all life forms, including spores and viruses.

G-16

33

aseptic techniques

methods of handling microbial cultures, patient specimens.

G-2

34

germ theory of disease

A theory first originating in the 1800s that proposed that microorganisms can be the cause of diseases. The concept is actually so well established in the present time that it is considered a fact.

G-7

35

nomenclature

a set system for scientically naming organisms, enzymes, anatomical structures, etc.

G-12

36

taxonomy

The formal system for organizing, classifying, and naming living things.

G-17

37

taxa

Taxonomic categories.

G-17

38

hierarchy or hierarchies

levels of power. Arrangement in order of rank.

G-8

39

species

In the level of classification, the most specific level of organization.

G-16

40

domain

in the levels of classification, the broadest general category to which an organism is assigned. Members of a domain share only one or a few general characteristics.

G-5

41

kingdom

in the levels of classification, the second division from more general to more specific. Each domain is divided into kingdoms.

G-9

42

phylum

in the levels of classification, the third level of classification from general to more specific. Each kingdom is divided into numerous phyla. Sometimes referred to as division.

G-13

43

division

in the levels of classification, an alternate term for phylum.

G-5

44

class

in the level of classification, the division of organisms that follows phylum.

G-4

45

order

In the level of classification, the division of organisms that follows class. Increasing similarity may be noticed among organisms assigned to the same order.

G-12

46

family

In the level of classification, a mid-level division of organisms that groups more closely related organisms than previous levels. An order is divided into families.

G-6

47

genus

In the levels of classification, the second most specific level. A family is divided into several genera.

G-7

48

bionomial (two-name) system of nomenclature

scientific method of assigning names to organisms that employs two names to identify every organism-genus name plus species name.

G-3

49

phylogeny or phylogenetic

A classification system based on evolutionary relationships. Also called phyletic.

G-13

50

evolution

scientific principle that states that living things change gradually through hundreds of millions of years, and these changes are expressed in structural and functional adaptations in each organisms. Evolution presumes that those traits that favor survival are preserved and passed on to following generations and those traits that do not favor survival are lost.

G-6

51

morphology

The study of organismic structure.

G-11

52

physiology

The study of the function of an organism.

G-13

53

genetics

The science of heredity

G-7

54

archaea or archaeons

prokaryotic single celled organisms of primitive origin that have unusual anatomy, physiology and genetics and live in harsh habitats; when capitalized (Archaea), the term refers to one of the three domains of living organisms as proposed by Woese.

G-2

55

eukarya

One of the three domains of living organisms, sometimes called superkigdoms, as proposed by Woese; contains all eukaryotic organisms.

G-6