pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics

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Pharmacology
Chapter 2
updated 8 months ago by Akosua_Ruby
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1

absorption

the movement of drugs into the bloodstream

2

PO drugs

  • enteric coating: used to reduce destruction to stomach and prevent ulcers
  • extended release: generally over 12-24hrs allowing the patient to take medication once daily rather than multiple times daily
3

factos that affect absorption rates

  • time of day
  • empty or full stimach
  • blood flow
  • pH
  • food
  • route of administration
4

first pass effect

medication goes through a process of metabolism through the liver that the patient may not feel the effects of the medication.

  • occurs with PO drugs
5

pharmacogenetics

refers to the study of genetic factors that influence an individual's response to specific drug

6

passive transport

passive requires two processes

  • diffusion: move from higher concentration to lower concentration
  • facilitated: relies on carrier protein to move from higher concentration to lower
7

active transport

requires a carrier to move drug against a concentration gradient. energy is required

8

distribution

movement of drug from circulation to the body tissues

  • protein binding
  • blood brain barrier
9

protein binding drugs

  • highly protein bound drugs are susceptible to an OD because they stay in the bloodstream longer
  • not highly protein bound drugs will need to be take more often because it will leave the bloodstream faster
10

what is the purpose of albumin

albumin is a carrier. it carries the drug through the body.

11

metabolism

process by which the body chemically changes drugs into a form that can be excreted

  • cytochrome p450 enzymes
12

half-life

amount of time it takes 50% of a structure to become metabolised and out of the body system

13

steady state

patients condition is maintained with the correct steady dosage to maintain steady condition state

14

loading dose

initial large dose to create an immediate effect, lower steady dose will be given

15

excretion

elimination of drugs from the body.

  • main route: kidneys. also, through bile, lungs, saliva, sweat, and breast milk

urine pH influences excretion

16

pharmacodynamics

the study of the effects of drugs onthe body

  • primary response: desired effect
  • secondary response: may be desirable or undesirable
17

peak action

highest plasma concentration of drug at a specific time

18

trough

lowest plasma concentration of a drug

  • measures rate at which drug is eliminated
  • usually drawn right before net dose without regard for route of administration.
19

receptor theory

  • drugs act by binding to receptors
  • activity of most drugs is determined by the ability of the drug to bind to a specific receptor
  • the better the drug fits, the more active the receptor site
  • most receptors are found on cell surfaces
20

non-specific

drugs that affect multiple receptor sites

21

non-selective

drugs that affect multiple receptors

22

adverse reactions

unintentional, unexpected reactions to drug therapy that occur at normal dosages

23

side effects

secondary effects of drug therapy

24

drug toxicity

occurs when drug levels exceed a therapeutic range. may be secondary to OD or accumulation

25

pharmacogenetics

refers to the study of genetic factors that influence an individual's response to specigic drug

26

tachyphalaxis

acute, rapid decrease in the response of a drug

27

additive drug effects

the combination of two drugs have greater effect to treat problem

28

synergistic drug effects

when two medicatins work better together than when taken alone

29

toxic effect can result if trough level is low

false