Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry pt.1

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Basic Chemistry
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physiology
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1

Matter

Anything that occupies space and has mass.

- can be seen, smelled or felt.

2

Weight

Mass plus the effects of gravity

3

Mass

The actual amount of matter in the object that remains constant wherever the object is.

4

How many different types of matter (also known as elements) are there that occur naturally in our universe?

92

5

What are the three states of matter that are found in the human body?

Solid

liquid

& gas

6

Solid (state of matter)

Definite shape & volume

ex: bones and teeth

7

Liquid (state of matter)

Changeable shape , definite volume

changeable shape because they conform to the shape of their container

ex: blood plasma

8

Gas (state of matter)

Changeable shape and volume (neither a definite shape nor a definite volume)

ex: Air

9

Energy

The capacity to do work OR to put matter in motion

-does not have mass nor does it take up space

- the greater the work done, the more energy it uses up.

10

What double membrane bound organelle is in charge of making energy?

Mitochondria

11

Mitochondria

structure within the cells that makes energy for us to use in the form of ATP

12

Catabolism

breakdown of molecules to make ATP

13

ATP (chemical)

our (food) energy source that is captured into temporary bonds which are later broken down and released to do cellular work.

- foods we eat cannot energize or body directly SO it is converted to ATP.

14

Anabolism

building of ATP

15

Metabolism

use and production of energy

16

what are the by products of anabolism & catabolism?

heat production

17

what are the two possible forms of energy that can be transformed to the other?

Kinetic & potential

18

Kinetic Energy

energy in action

- Constant movement of particles of matter

19

Potential Energy

Stored (inactive) energy that can be released.

once released it results in action (kinetic energy)

20

How are matter and energy inseparable?

Matter is the substance and energy is the mover of the substance.

21

Chemical Energy

a form of energy that is stored in the bonds of chemical substances such as ATP which is the most useful form of energy, which is then used as Kinetic energy

22

why is chemical energy in the form of ATP the most useful form of energy in living systems?

because it is used to run almost all functional processes.

23

Electrical Energy

the movement of charged particles

24

In your home, where is electrical energy found?

Found in the flow of electrons along the household wiring.

25

In your body, where is electrical energy found?

electrical currents are generated when charged particles (ions) move along or across cell membranes.

26

How does the nervous system use electrical currents (nerve impluses or action potentials)

to transmit messages from one part of the body to another

27

How are electrical currents used when referrring to the heart?

electrical currents stimulate the heart to contract (beat) and pump blood.

28

Mechanical Energy

energy directly involved in moving matter

29

Example of Mechanical Energy

Riding a bike; your legs provide the mechanical energy that moves the pedals.

30

Radiant energy/ electromagnetic radiation

energy that travels in waves which vary in length; collectively called electromagnetic spectrum

ex: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light . . .

31

give an example of how energy can be converted from one form to another. . .

turning on a lamp converts electrical energy to light energy

32

why are energy conversions inefficient?

because some of the energy supply is always lost to the environment as heat which is partly unusable

33

why do all energy conversions in the body liberate heat?

heat helps maintain our relatively high body temperature which influences the bodys functioning.

34

What form of energy is found in the food we eat?

Chemical Energy

35

what form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another ?

Electrical

36

what type of energy is available when we are still ? when we are exercising?

PE- still

KE- exercising

37

what are Energy transformers?

organisms that convert organized forms of energy into heat and waste products. The heat released then increases the entropy of the universe

38

Organisms that are energy producers?

convert light energy into chemical energy

39

Organisms that are consumers

Convert chemical energy into kinetic energy

** kinetic energy - energy in action

40

Organisms that are decomposers ?

Convert chemical energy into kinetic energy

41

Elements

Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical bonds

42

Atom

identical particles or building blocks that an element is composed of, that can be divided into protons, neutrons & electrons

- gives elements its unique physical and chemical properties

43

Physical properties

Those we can detect with our senses (such as color and texture or measure (such as boiling point and freezing.

44

Chemical properties

The way atoms interact with other atoms (bonding behavior) and account for the facts that iron rusts,

45

Atomic symbol

One or two letter chemical shorthand for each element. Usually the first letter of the elements name

ex: O for Oxygen

46

what does the central nucleus of an atom contain?

Protons and neutrons that are tightly bound together that can vary in number in some elements

47

What orbits the nucleus

Negatively charged electrons in electron shells.

48

Electrons

Negatively charged

49

Protons

Positive charge

50

Neutron

Neutral

- lacks electrical charge

51

Why doesn’t an atom have an electrical charge? Basically neutral

Because it has the same number of electrons (negative charge) as protons (positive charge) so it is balanced out

52

What are the four major elements that make up 96% of body mass?

Carbon

hydrogen

oxygen

nitrogen

53

What are the 9 lesser elements of the human body that makes up 3.9% if body mass?

Calcium - CA

phosphorus - P

potassium- K

sulfur- S

sodium - Na

chlorine - cL

magnesium- Mg

iodine- I

iron- Fe

54

What are trace elements?

Elements that occur in very minute amounts about 11 of them make up less than 0.1% of body mass

55

Give an examples of a trace element

Chromium - Cr

56

Electron Shells

Orbits that electrons follow around the nucleus

each shell has a maximum capacity of electrons

57

Atomic Number

The number of protons in its nucleus OR the large number written on the left of the atomic symbol

58
card image

Name

The atomic number

59

How would you calculate the Mass number

Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus

ex: helium: 2protons 2neutrons = mass number is 4.

60

how would you classify an element as an Isotope

Elements that have two or more structural variations that have the same number of protons and electrons

61

Molecule

General term for 2 or more atoms bonded together

62

Compound

Two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together

ex: water

63

Why are most atoms chemically combined with other atoms to form molecules and compounds ?

Because most gases are unstable and are searching for stability

64

How many electrons can be in the first electron shell ?

2

65

How many electrons can be in the second electron shell ?

8

66

What does the chemical behavior of an atom depend on ?

The number of electrons in it outermost shell

67

Valence shell

an atoms outermost energy level or that portion of it containing the electrons that are chemically reactive

68

How do atoms interact with each other

Through chemical bonds

69

What are the three types of chemical bonds ?

Covalent

ionic

hydrogen

70

Covalent bonds

Strongest of the bonds

Atoms share one or more electrons

71

Non polar covalent bond

Electrons shared equally between atoms of a molecule

- results in electrically balances non polar molecules

ex: carbon dioxide

72

Polar covalent bonds

Unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms results in electrically polar molecules

73

One covalent bond

1 pair of electrons shared between two atoms

74

Double covalent bonds

Two pairs of electrons shared between two atoms

75

Triple covalent bonds

Three pairs of electrons shared between two atoms

76

Electronegative

Atoms with greater electron attracting ability

6 or 7 valence shell electrons that are electron hungry

77

Electropositive

Atoms with less electron - attracting ability (one or two valence shell electrons)

78

Dipole

Having two different charges

79

Due to polarity what does “ like dissolves like” mean

A polar molecule will dissolve in a polar solvent & non polar dissolves in a non polar solvent

80

Ionic Bond (chemical bond)

Intermediate

attraction between two oppositely charged ions

A chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfered of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.

81

Ion

Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged

82

electron acceptor (anion)

atom that gains one or more electrons

83

Anion

Negative gained electron

84

electron donor (cation)

atom that loses electrons

85

Cation

Positive lost electron

86

When are anions and cations formed?

Whenever electron transfers between atoms occur

these ions tend to stay together resulting in an ionic bond

87

Hydrogen Bond (chemical bond) *weakest**

Attractive force betweeen electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule

not a true bond, weak magnetic attraction

common between dipoles such as water

also acts as intramolecular bonds holding a large molecule in a three dimensional shape

88

Intramolecular hydrogen bonds

Bonds within molecules that holds parts of a single large molecule in a specific three dimensional shape.

89

what two elements besides H and N make up the bulk of living matter?

Carbon & Oxygen

90

What kinds of bonds form between water molecules?

Hydrogen bonds (linking H of one water molecule to O of another

91

Oxygen and argon are both gases. Oxygen combines readily with other element, but argon does not. What accounts for this difference

Argons valence shell is full. for this reason it is nonreactive