Ch. 2 Basic Chemistry pt.1
Anything that occupies space and has mass.
- can be seen, smelled or felt.
Mass plus the effects of gravity
The actual amount of matter in the object that remains constant wherever the object is.
How many different types of matter (also known as elements) are there that occur naturally in our universe?
What are the three states of matter that are found in the human body?
Solid (state of matter)
Definite shape & volume
ex: bones and teeth
Liquid (state of matter)
Changeable shape , definite volume
changeable shape because they conform to the shape of their container
ex: blood plasma
Gas (state of matter)
Changeable shape and volume (neither a definite shape nor a definite volume)
The capacity to do work OR to put matter in motion
-does not have mass nor does it take up space
- the greater the work done, the more energy it uses up.
What double membrane bound organelle is in charge of making energy?
structure within the cells that makes energy for us to use in the form of ATP
breakdown of molecules to make ATP
our (food) energy source that is captured into temporary bonds which are later broken down and released to do cellular work.
- foods we eat cannot energize or body directly SO it is converted to ATP.
building of ATP
use and production of energy
what are the by products of anabolism & catabolism?
what are the two possible forms of energy that can be transformed to the other?
Kinetic & potential
energy in action
- Constant movement of particles of matter
Stored (inactive) energy that can be released.
once released it results in action (kinetic energy)
How are matter and energy inseparable?
Matter is the substance and energy is the mover of the substance.
a form of energy that is stored in the bonds of chemical substances such as ATP which is the most useful form of energy, which is then used as Kinetic energy
why is chemical energy in the form of ATP the most useful form of energy in living systems?
because it is used to run almost all functional processes.
the movement of charged particles
In your home, where is electrical energy found?
Found in the flow of electrons along the household wiring.
In your body, where is electrical energy found?
electrical currents are generated when charged particles (ions) move along or across cell membranes.
How does the nervous system use electrical currents (nerve impluses or action potentials)
to transmit messages from one part of the body to another
How are electrical currents used when referrring to the heart?
electrical currents stimulate the heart to contract (beat) and pump blood.
energy directly involved in moving matter
Example of Mechanical Energy
Riding a bike; your legs provide the mechanical energy that moves the pedals.
Radiant energy/ electromagnetic radiation
energy that travels in waves which vary in length; collectively called electromagnetic spectrum
ex: radio waves, microwaves, infrared waves, visible light . . .
give an example of how energy can be converted from one form to another. . .
turning on a lamp converts electrical energy to light energy
why are energy conversions inefficient?
because some of the energy supply is always lost to the environment as heat which is partly unusable
why do all energy conversions in the body liberate heat?
heat helps maintain our relatively high body temperature which influences the bodys functioning.
What form of energy is found in the food we eat?
what form of energy is used to transmit messages from one part of the body to another ?
what type of energy is available when we are still ? when we are exercising?
what are Energy transformers?
organisms that convert organized forms of energy into heat and waste products. The heat released then increases the entropy of the universe
Organisms that are energy producers?
convert light energy into chemical energy
Organisms that are consumers
Convert chemical energy into kinetic energy
** kinetic energy - energy in action
Organisms that are decomposers ?
Convert chemical energy into kinetic energy
Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical bonds
identical particles or building blocks that an element is composed of, that can be divided into protons, neutrons & electrons
- gives elements its unique physical and chemical properties
Those we can detect with our senses (such as color and texture or measure (such as boiling point and freezing.
The way atoms interact with other atoms (bonding behavior) and account for the facts that iron rusts,
One or two letter chemical shorthand for each element. Usually the first letter of the elements name
ex: O for Oxygen
what does the central nucleus of an atom contain?
Protons and neutrons that are tightly bound together that can vary in number in some elements
What orbits the nucleus
Negatively charged electrons in electron shells.
- lacks electrical charge
Why doesn’t an atom have an electrical charge? Basically neutral
Because it has the same number of electrons (negative charge) as protons (positive charge) so it is balanced out
What are the four major elements that make up 96% of body mass?
What are the 9 lesser elements of the human body that makes up 3.9% if body mass?
Calcium - CA
phosphorus - P
sodium - Na
chlorine - cL
What are trace elements?
Elements that occur in very minute amounts about 11 of them make up less than 0.1% of body mass
Give an examples of a trace element
Chromium - Cr
Orbits that electrons follow around the nucleus
each shell has a maximum capacity of electrons
The number of protons in its nucleus OR the large number written on the left of the atomic symbol
The atomic number
How would you calculate the Mass number
Total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
ex: helium: 2protons 2neutrons = mass number is 4.
how would you classify an element as an Isotope
Elements that have two or more structural variations that have the same number of protons and electrons
General term for 2 or more atoms bonded together
Two or more different kinds of atoms bonded together
Why are most atoms chemically combined with other atoms to form molecules and compounds ?
Because most gases are unstable and are searching for stability
How many electrons can be in the first electron shell ?
How many electrons can be in the second electron shell ?
What does the chemical behavior of an atom depend on ?
The number of electrons in it outermost shell
an atoms outermost energy level or that portion of it containing the electrons that are chemically reactive
How do atoms interact with each other
Through chemical bonds
What are the three types of chemical bonds ?
Strongest of the bonds
Atoms share one or more electrons
Non polar covalent bond
Electrons shared equally between atoms of a molecule
- results in electrically balances non polar molecules
ex: carbon dioxide
Polar covalent bonds
Unequal sharing of electrons between two atoms results in electrically polar molecules
One covalent bond
1 pair of electrons shared between two atoms
Double covalent bonds
Two pairs of electrons shared between two atoms
Triple covalent bonds
Three pairs of electrons shared between two atoms
Atoms with greater electron attracting ability
6 or 7 valence shell electrons that are electron hungry
Atoms with less electron - attracting ability (one or two valence shell electrons)
Having two different charges
Due to polarity what does “ like dissolves like” mean
A polar molecule will dissolve in a polar solvent & non polar dissolves in a non polar solvent
Ionic Bond (chemical bond)
attraction between two oppositely charged ions
A chemical bond between atoms formed by the transfered of one or more electrons from one atom to the other.
Atoms that have gained or lost electrons and become charged
electron acceptor (anion)
atom that gains one or more electrons
Negative gained electron
electron donor (cation)
atom that loses electrons
Positive lost electron
When are anions and cations formed?
Whenever electron transfers between atoms occur
these ions tend to stay together resulting in an ionic bond
Hydrogen Bond (chemical bond) *weakest**
Attractive force betweeen electropositive hydrogen of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule
not a true bond, weak magnetic attraction
common between dipoles such as water
also acts as intramolecular bonds holding a large molecule in a three dimensional shape
Intramolecular hydrogen bonds
Bonds within molecules that holds parts of a single large molecule in a specific three dimensional shape.
what two elements besides H and N make up the bulk of living matter?
Carbon & Oxygen
What kinds of bonds form between water molecules?
Hydrogen bonds (linking H of one water molecule to O of another
Oxygen and argon are both gases. Oxygen combines readily with other element, but argon does not. What accounts for this difference
Argons valence shell is full. for this reason it is nonreactive