the anterior pituitary gland stimulates
GH, TSH, ACTH, Gonadotropins, prolactin
growth hormone deficiency (somatropin)
- identical to human GH. it encourages growth.
- given subcute. notify HCP if child is not growing after weeks/months of administration
- make sure epiphyseal plate is still open. administration with closed epiphyseal plate can lead to acromegaly
- do not take corticosteroids with somatropin.
side effects of somatropin
muscle pain, weakness, peripheral edema, fluctuation of glucose levels. check glucose levels
growth hormone excess (somatotropin)
- inhibiting hormone. affects body's tissue and bones. tries to slow down excess GH.
posterior pituitary stimulates
ADH and oxytocin
hormone that tells body to stop releasing fluid through the kidneys
excess ADH: SIADH
dificient ADH: diabetes insipidus
- excess ADH. Can be caused by small carcinoma of lung, medications or stressors.
- fluid retention, fluid overload, edema, electrolyte imbalances
treatment of SIADH
fluid restriction, hypertonic saline, drug therapy
- ADH deficiency. head injury and brain tumors resulting from trauma can cause DI.
- large amounts of water excreted by kidneys.
- severe fluid volume deficit and electrolyte imbalances
the thyroid gland
- produce and secrete 3 hormones: T3,T4, and calcitonin
- majority of thyroid hormone are synthesized as T4 then converted to T3
- need iodine to synthesize T3 and T4
- fast metabolism. excessive T3 and T4
- graves disease
- caused by hyperfunction of thyroid gland.
- palpitations, tachycardia, hyperhidrosis, heat intolerance, nervousness, irritability, exophthalmos, weight loss.
treatment of graves disease
may be treated with surgical removal of thyroid gland, radioactive therapy or drugs
- characterized by slow metabolism
- primary cause: thyroid gland disorder
- secondary cause: lack of TSH secretion
- tertiary cause: lack of TRH
- severe hypothyroidism in adults
- lethargy, apathy, memory impairment, emotional changes, slow speech, deep coarse voice, edema
- hypothyroidism in children
- delayed mental and physical growth
- secretes PTH and regulates serum calcium levels
- decrease in calcium stimulates release of PTH
calcitonin decreases calcium levles by
promoting osteoclast activity and calcium excretion by kidneys and intestines
- dysregulation of calcium in the body
- damage to parathyroid is common cause
- hypomagnesemia can also cause PTH deficiency
- drug used for hypoparathyroidism
- it promotes calcium absorption from the GI tract and promote secretion of calcium from bone to blood stream
side effects of calcitrol
early signs of hypercalcemia, fatigue, weakness, somnolence, cephalgia, N/V, diarrhea, cramps
- excess secretion of PTH sends message to body that it needs more circulating calcium
- calcium is pulled from bones, which increase risk of osteoporosis
- blocks osteoclast activity inhibiting mineralization of bones
- used for hyperparathyroidism to help prevent osteoporosis
side effects of alendronate
can cause severe esophagitis, abdominal and musculoskeletal pain, GI upset, hypotension, fever.
- deficient of adrenal gland activity.
- decrease serum sodium, increased serum potassium
- increased release from adrenal glands
- main cause is tumor formation in adrenal glands
- addison disease
- suppress inflammation to help with adrenal function
side effects of prednisone
angioedema, cardiac arhythmia, osteoporosis,fractures, tendon rupture