Virtue of ethics from a tribal philosophy to Socrates and plato
What is the fundamental question which virtue ethics asks and what does virtue ethics focus on developing?
How should I be, how to be a virtuous person? It focuses on the development of certain personal qualities outd a certain behavior pattern- in other words on the development of what we call character.
What is the origin of the word “virtue”?
Greek God Ares, the god of war, and must originally have meant having warrior like qualities.
How did the Greeks understand virtue?
a trait or quality that is deemed to be morally good and thus is valued as a foundation of principle and good moral being.
In what way are the Akan virtue ethicists? Explicate.
Akan ethics as focused on virtue and , whenever a person commits a.m act of wrongful dumbf it is not that "he/ she did something wrong" but that person is a bad person, we can work toward acquiring a good character through god habits. The best way to teach those good habits u.s through storytelling.
What is the Socratic Method?
Derived from the term Socrates special way of thanking of teaching, the dialectic method. A method of teaching that it uses conversation only.
Give a brief account of who Socrates was.
Loved in Athens, son of a sculptor and mid wife. Married to Xantippe. One of several teachers of philosophy, science, and rhetoric. When younger he was a solider in the Athens infantry, the city was everything to him. He was accused of being and evil doer and corrupting the youth, and that he didn't believe in the God of the state. Was tried and found guilty, sentenced to death.
What are the three factors that put Socrates in a difficult political situation? Explicate.
1. Great influence among young mem in Athens who might influence the future
2. Conducted classes publicly often engaging politicians in a discussion under the pretext of ignorance to Reich the speaker revealing his own ignorance and prejudice.
3. Athens was changing, became a place in which people expressed themselves more cautiously. Old laws against impiety was now enforced, people were banished for offenses against the state.
Socrates’ enemies eventually took action. What did they resort to doing in order to get rid of him? Explicate the trial.
They resorted to what appears to be a standard charge, that Socrates was offending the gods and corrupting the youth. Socrates was tried and convicted by a jury of 500 Male citizens of Athens
What does the text say about whether he was guilty of the charges?
Ther jury was almost split down the middle as to Socrates guilt, some coordinated that is Socrates had had 30 more votes in his favor, he would have been acquitted. 280 voted conviction, 220 acquittal. The votes in favor of the death penalty after Socrates reward speech were considerably higher than his conviction. People were outraged by his behavior and voted capital punishment.
Who is Plato and what is the Academy?
Socrates student for 13 yrs. Son of Ariston and Perictione. Born Aristocles. Wrestled when younger. Founded his own school of philosophy, the academy did own home which he opened to his students named after the Greek hero Academus.,
Socrates said “the unexamined life is not worth living.” What did he mean?
A life in which one is not ruled by the opinion of others or even by one's own opinions those ideas of ours that may or may not have some basis in the truth but that we haven't bothered to examine closely. Examine such opinions and discover that they constitute the basis for thre majority of our viewpoints.
What leads to wrongdoing for Socrates/Plato?
What should the truth not be confused with?
To what should seeking truth lead?
Understanding and knowledge of essential reality beyond the worlds of change and acceptance
What, then, is virtue for Socrates and what do we use to attain virtue?
To question the meaning of life and to keep one's integrity while searching to not be swayed by one's physical longings or fear of unpleasant situations or concern for comfort.
What is and is not the good life for Socrates?
The good life is not a parent love in astrick we seek gratification for the sake outd Baking a good time. The good life is strenuous but gratifying in its own way one Knows that one seeks and sees the truth and one's in control of oneself
What are the three parts of the soul for Plato? Describe each part of the soul and how it relates to the other parts of the soul.
- Reason to pull away from things we desire realizing it would be bad for you, when reason rules the person is wise
- Willpower our spirit, when spirit controls the appetite, the person is brave
- Appetite desires, needs and wants, when the appetites are in control the person u.s temperate.
Can an unjust person be happy? Why/why not?
An unjust can't be happy, only a well balanced person person, wise, brave, and temperate
What is the metaphor from the Phaedrus that Socrates uses and what does it mean?
Three sides relationship, the chairoteer is reason, the well behaved horse willpower, and the wild horse appetite. Balanced individuals have total power control by reason and willpower oldet appetite
What are the four virtues that result from a well aligned soul?
Wisdom, courage, temperance, and justice
What is metaphysics?
A injections view of reality
What are the three dominant metaphysics in the West?
- Materialism- really made up of things
- Idealism- reality is totally spirit all in the mind
- Dualism- reality consists of part matter
What does Plato hold to be ultimate or true reality? Explicate this notion
Realm of Forms, the ideal abstraction and style source sole each thing that resembles it. Forms are eternal, and the more enduring something is the more real it is. Through our intellect we touch reality.
What notion of ultimate or true reality is at the very top of Plato’s hierarchy? Explicate.
Justice, virtue and beauty, the form of good from which everything else drives. If a person realizes the existence of forms and in particular the highest the good, it will be impossible fir that person to deliberately choose to do wrong, wrong comes only from ignorance of god. Desires pull is in other direction
Explain the myth of the cave (read pages 431-433). What is the myth of the cave and what does it mean?
Chained prisonersPeople who believe that the physical world is real and all there is
The chainsThe senses and the physical world that trick us into thinking that the world of appearances is real
The fireThe physical sun, which gives the light which allows us to see physical things
The shapes casting the shadowsLies and untruths made by the sophists and politicians
The shadowsIllusions - false images of what is real
The escaped prisonerThe person who is escaping the lies by becoming a philosopher in order to learn the truth
The steep and rugged way out of the caveThe difficult process of philosophical education to escape the lies and illusions of the physical world
The people making the shadows from the roadwayThe sophists and politicians
The world outside the caveThe world of formsThe blindness caused when leaving the cave
The difficulty of accepting that everything you thought you knew was wrong
The sun outside the caveThe Form of The Good
The return to the caveThe duty of the philosopher to try and lead those who are stuck in the cave
The killing of the returning prisonerThe death of Socrates, who was killed (as Plato believed) for teaching the truthThe caveThe world of appearances / the physical world
Dialectic method, socratic method, conversation only
Teansmigration of souls