Ch. 7 Participation & Voting

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1

The text defines___ as the actions of private citizens by which they seek to influence or support govt and politics.

political participation

2

One criterion that must be met for a country to be democratic is that it must

have more than one political party.

3

Although terrorism is an unconventional political action, it is generally not counted as unconventional political participation bc

terrorists don't seek to influence govt but to destroy it.

4

Timothy McVeigh bombed the OKC federal building bc

he believed the US govt had become a police state.

5

According to the text, violent unconventional political participation is

sometimes worth the risk.

6

All of the following are regarded in the text as examples of unconventional participation except

Timothy McVeigh's 1995 bombing of the fedral building in OKC .

7

Which of the following was the first known act of unconventional participation in America?

The Boston Teas Party

8

Political scientists know less about unconventional forms of political participation bc

* it is easier to collect data on conventional practices.

* they are biased toward institutionalized , or conventional, politics.

9

Unconventional political participation involving assembling crowds to confront businesses and local govt is known as

direct action

10

The 1955 Montgomery bus boycott is an example of

successful unconventional political participation.

11

Americans are less likely to ___ than citizens of other countries.

join demonstrations

12

A practical test of whether or not a govt is democratic whether

citizens can affect its policies by acting through its institutions

13

Studies of Americans who engage in contacting behavior like complaining to city hall find

they are not more likely to vote than other Americans.

14

Americans contributing money to a candidates campaign is best defined as a form of

influencing behavior

15

___ is political action that expresses allegiance to country and govt.

supportive behavior

16

The ability of groups to make govt respond to their special problems is best described as part of ___ theory.

supportive behavior

17

Citizens mobilization to stop construction of a nuclear waste facility near their homes would be an example of the ____ phenomenon.

NIMBY

18

A legal action brought by a person or group on behalf of a # of ppl in similar circumstances is also known as a

class action suit.

19

The country with the lowest voter turnout among eligible voters in congressional election is

the US

20

Researchers have found that political apathy is ____ in the United States compared to almost all other nations.

much lower

21

The text defines suffrage and franchise as the right to

vote

22

Which country was the first to provide for the general election of representatives through mass suffrage?

US

23

The framers for the Constitution left the issue of voter enfranchisement to

the states

24

The ___ Amendment to the Constitution prohibits states from denying the right to vote on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

15th

25

The purpose of their literacy tests that were used in the southern states after 1870 was to

discourage African Americans from voting.

26

In Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court found___ is(are) unconstitutional.

preventing blacs from voting in primary elections

27

The amendment granting women's suffrage is the

19th amendment

28

Compared with other nations in the world in granting suffrage to women, the US

was among the first

29

A 2013 supreme court decision regarding the Voting Rights Act allowed numerous states to

enforce new voter id laws.

30

Women were granted universal suffragein

1920

31

Which of the following qualifications for voting was virtually eliminated in all states by the 1850s?

Property Ownership

32

The amendment lowering the voting age to 18 is the

26th amendment

33

A direct primary is a

preliminary election to choose party candidates.

34

Most referenda are placed on the ballot by

legislatures

35

The typical procedure for an initiative requires petitions to feature the signatures of ______ of the number of registered voters in a state.

5-10%

36

____ championed the direct primary.

Progressives

37

One recent criticism of referenda and initiatives is that

they create an expensive industry designed around circulating petitions and spending millions.

38

In 2012 and 2013 , voters approved a # of ballot propositions, including ones in Colorado and Washington that

legalized marijuana

39

According to the text , if their criterion is _____ , America has the best and most democratic govt in the world.

# of elections held

40

Voting in the US decreased during the 1970s&1980s . Other forms of participation

increased or remained stable.

41

The standard socioeconomic model of participation chiefly refers to

education, income, and occupation.

42

According to the text, Americans were_____ politically apathetic in 2012 compared to 1952.

neither more nor less

43

Characteristics frequently associated with nonvoters are

low education, low income, and being relatively young.

44

In general today, women politically participate

at about the same rate as men.

45

Of all the social and economic variables affecting political participation, ____ is the strongest single factor.

education

46

Women compared to men, and blacks compared to whites, tend to have political participation rates today that are

about the same

47

How does education affect voter turnout?

well educated people are more likely to vote than are their less educated counterparts.

48

The effect of the 26th Amendment, which enfranchised 18 to 20 yrs old, was to

reduce the national voter turnout rate

49

Psychological explanations of turnout suggest that voting will rise if

more Americans believe that govt is responsive.

50

By law, the US presdidential elction occurs

the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November.

51

In nearly every other democratic country, the burden of registration is place on

the govt

52

In Oregon, everyone votes by

mail

53

If voter turnout was computed on the basis of registered voters, about_____ of Americans vote.

80%

54

The American emphasis on freedom over equality in political participation works to the benefit of

those with greater resources.

55

According to the text, with respect to political participation_____ is the great equalizer....

protest

56

During the Vietnam War, protesting students on college campuses

stopped traffic, destroyed property, occupied buildings , boycotted classes and disrupted lectures.

57

To maintain order, the govt has a statke in converting____ whenever possible.

unconventional participation into conventional participation

58

Congress and the states moved quickly to pass the 26 th Amendment, which lowered the voting age to 18, bc they

hoped to channel student energy away from demonstrations and toward more conventional forms of participation.

59

Someone who asserts that elections socialize political activity is contending that elections are mechanisms that maintain

order

60

The majoritarian model of democracy favors

voting as the primary means of participation

61

Elections as an institutional mechanism

bolster the power and authority of the state

62

Because it depends on mass participation in politics, majoritarianism tends to

limit individual freedom.

63

Define political participation and describe and give examples of the elements that comprise it.

178

64

Explain why the 1965 march from Selma, Alabama, to Montgomery, Alabama though an unconventional form of political participation that led to violence, proved beneficial to the Civil Rights movement.

179

65

Discuss the two major categories of political behaviors that the text indicates comprise conventional political participation.

183

66

Summarize the expansion of voting rights by describing federal govt actions that granted the franchise to those who had been denied suffrage.

187-189

67

Discuss initiative and referendum, including how they are related and giving examples of each

190

68

Discuss how Americans compare in terms of voter turnout with citizens of other democracies, and one reason your text offers for why this difference may exist.

192-193

69

What do we know about trends in voter turnout and other forms of political participation from 1952- to 2012

194

70

Describe why people with a higher socioeconomic status engage in conventional political participation.

194

71

What explanations have researchers suggested for decreasing voter turnout in the US?

197-198

72

How does political participation relate to freedom, equality, and order?

199-200

73

In addition to their being vehicles that implement democracy, describe the other important purposes of elections,

202