Psyc 3330 CH 7/6?
The feeling of discomfort by performing an action that is discrepant from one’s self-concept.
A way of reducing dissonance by reminding ourselves of one’s positive attributes. “Yeah I feel stupid for smoking , but boy am I a good cook”
When people overestimate the intensity and duration of negative emotional reactions. Because the dissonance reduction process is mostly unconscious, we do not anticipate that it will save us from future anguish. We humans do not always process information in an unbiased way, but once we are committed to our views and beliefs, most of us distort new info in a way that confirms them.
after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives. Because people underestimate the discomfort of dissonance, they failed to realize that the finality of a decision would make them happier.
When a salesperson gets you to agree to buying an item at a particular cost than claims there was an error and the price is higher, the customer will frequently agree take make the purchase at the inflated price
Justification of effort
The tendency for indviduals to increase their likely for something they have worked hard to attain, people justify the effort they have put into things. The more effort you put in to obtain something the more attractive it becomes.
An explaination for dissonant behavior that resides outside of the person
A long lasting form of attitude change that results from attempts at self-justification. It is more permanent than direct attempts of persuasion as it has occurred internally and not via external coaxing, threats or pressure Large rewards/punishments because they are strong external justification, encourage compliance but do not lead to real attitude change. Smallest reward/ punishment is best
Saying become believeing. When we claim an attitude that is different from our true ones and we have no external justification, what we belief begins to conform to the lie we told.
The dissonance felt when a person lacks the external justification needed to resist a desired activity/object, usually resulting in people devaluating the object (not wanting it anymore)
The arousal of dissonance by having people make statements that conflict with their behaviors, reminding them of this inconsistency can help lead to more responsible behavior. However people’s attitudes can be poor predictors of their behavior.
You will try to reduce dissonance by changing something about yourself, such as your attitude or behavior.
Dissonance reduction - Change your attitude
“It is not bad to drive when intoxicated. I am a skilled driver so I can also drive when I am intoxicated”
Dissonance reduction - Change your perception of the behaviour
“I hardly drove in this state, home was only a few kilometers away”
Dissonance reduction - Add consonant cognitions
“People who drive while texting are more dangerous.”
Dissonance reduction - Minimize the importance of the conflict
“I’ve done it dozens of times”
Dissonance reduction - Reduce perceived choice
“I had to get home, my roommate was locked out”
Dissonance reduction - Change behaviour (if possible)
“I am not going to drive – I am going to call a taxi”
Mere exposure effect (lolz):
The more we are exposed to a novel stimulus, the more we tend to like it.
The Theory of Planned Behavior
A theory that the best predictors of a person’s planned, deliberate behaviors are the person’s attitudes toward specific behaviors, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control
The Theory of Planned Behavior (Subjective norms)
People’s beliefs about how other people they care about will view the behavior in question
The Theory of Planned Behavior (Attitude toward the behavior)
People’s specific attitude toward the behavior, not their general attitude
The Theory of Planned Behavior (Perceived behavioral control)
The ease with which people believe they can perform the behavior
The Theory of Planned Behavior (Intention)
the motivation that influence behaviors includes the three
Central Route to Persuasion
The case in which people have both the ability and the motivation to elaborate on a persuasive communication, listening carefully to and thinking about the arguments presented (uses controlled thinking)
Peripheral Route to Persuasion
The case in which people do not elaborate on the arguments in a persuasive communication but are instead swayed by more superficial cues (automatic thinking)
Fear-Arousing Communication / Fear Appeals
Persuasive message that attempts to change people’s attitudes by arousing their fears, too much fear shown to distance self from stimulus entirely and won't be persuaded
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position
The ABC Model of Attitudes
afffective (emotional eg scared of spiders, Behavioral ( avoid spiders), cognitive (believe spiders are dangerous)
STUDY Richard LaPiere (1934) shows that the relation between attitudes and behaviour is not always so simple
showed attitudes and behavior are weakly correlated, people don't always do what they believe, using chinese couple and asking if would refuse service after visiting resturants, many said they would refuse service on phone but IRL served couple
Elaboration Likelihood Model
explains two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centrally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and peripherally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
Elaboration likelihood model - Source Credibility
persuasion through actual expertise(central route) or the appearance of expertise often persuades through the peripheral route.
Elaboration likelihood model - Source attractiveness
pretty things persuade people better, like you flash card user :p
Elaboration likelihood model - length of message
longer better, if long must be true
Elaboration likelihood model - celebrities
if have good veiw of celeb will have good view of product by extension
STUDY Dissonance Festinger and Carlsmith (1959)
The attitude-discrepant behavior has to have negative consequences. The person must feel personally responsible for the negative consequences (i.e., the person has freedom of choice and the consequences are foreseeable) The person must experience negative arousal attribute this arousal to his/her own behaviour, used money and boring tasks
STUDY Effort justification Aronson and Mills (1959):
Participants were college women and were told that they would be joining a group that had already met before to discuss various aspects about the psychology of sex, more talk/uncomfortable felt, more they tried to justify that experience was worthwhile