Fundamentals of Nursing: Infection Prevention and Control Flashcards


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1

During which stage is a patient capable of spreading a disease because microorganisms are growing and multiplying?

1. Illness stage

2. Prodromal stage

3. Incubation period

4. Convalescence stage

The prodromal stage is the time interval of onset of nonspecific symptoms to more specific symptoms. During this stage, microbes grow and multiply and the patient is capable of spreading the disease to others. The illness stage is the time interval when a patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to the type of infection. The incubation period is the time interval between the entrance of a pathogen into the body and the appearance of the first symptoms. The convalescence stage is the time interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear.

2

Which microorganism causes gas gangrene?

Clostridium perfringens

(Clostridium perfringens causes gas gangrene. Escherichia coli causes gastroenteritis and urinary tract infection. Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes gonorrhea and pelvic inflammatory disease. Staphylococcus aureus causes wound infection and pneumonia.)

3

The nurse is caring for a patient 24 hours status post abdominal surgery. Upon examination, the nurse notes that a purulent exudate has formed at the incision site. Which cellular components make up purulent exudate? Select all that apply.

Accumulation of fluid, dead tissue cells, and WBCs form a purulent exudate at the site of inflammation. Exudate may be serous (clear, like plasma), sanguineous (containing red blood cells), or purulent (containing white blood cells and bacteria). Neutrophils and monocytes are types of white blood cells, and as such, can be components of purulent exudate. Red blood cells are not part of purulent exudate.

4

Which patients are at a low risk of disease transmission? Select all that apply.

1 A patient with Ebola
2 A patient with influenza
3 A patient with pneumonia
4 A patient with chickenpox
5 A patient with viral meningitis

A patient with pneumonia and a patient with viral meningitis are at a low risk of disease transmission. A patient with Ebola, a patient with influenza, and a patient with chickenpox are at a high risk of disease transmission because these conditions can spread through direct contact.

5

Which normal flora of the human colon can cause an infection when it enters the bloodstream?

Bacteroides fragilis

( Bacteroides fragilis is a part of the normal flora of the human colon. This microorganism can cause infections if it enters the blood stream or tissue during injury or surgery. Escherichia coli causes gastroenteritis in the colon. Candida albicans causes candidiasis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria.)

6

A patient is suspected of having chickenpox. What are the modes of transmission of the organism that causes this infection?Select all that apply.

1 Vector
2 Vehicle
3 Droplet
4 Airborne
5 Direct contact

Varicella zoster is the organism that causes chickenpox. Infection spreads by the airborne route, by the droplet nuclei, and by direct contact. Vector transmissions, such as mosquito and louse bites, do not cause chickenpox. Vehicles, such as contaminated items, water, and blood, do not cause chickenpox.

7

The nurse is caring for a patient who is suffering from a gastrointestinal infection. The nurse understands that any infection occurs in four stages. Arrange the stages of infection in the correct order.

The incubation period is the interval between the entrance of the pathogen to the body and the appearance of the first symptoms. It may vary from one day to several days. The prodromal phase is the interval between the onset of nonspecific symptoms and the appearance of specific symptoms of the infection. At this time, the pathogen multiplies inside the body, and the host is capable of spreading the infection. The illness stage is characterized by symptoms specific to the particular infection. The convalescence stage is the period of recovery from infection. The duration depends on many factors including the severity of infection and the immunity of the host.

8

A patient who had a hysterectomy 10 days ago has come for a follow-up visit. The patient is experiencing pain and itching at the incision site. After assessment, the health care provider suspects the incision site is infected. Which interventions would help control infection? Select all that apply

1 Reduce water intake.
2 Administer antibiotics.
3 Administer anxiolytics.
4 Provide adequate nutrition.
5 Monitor response to drug therapy.

Antibiotics should be administered to control the wound infection. Adequate nutrition is a supportive therapy, which helps in wound healing and recovery from infection. The response to drug therapy should be monitored to plan further management. Reducing water intake is not advisable; instead adequate water intake should be encouraged. Administration of anxiolytics is only considered for anxious patients and not for wound infection.

9

What is the name of the interval when a patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to a type of infection?

The illness stage is the interval in which the patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to a type of infection. (For instance, strep throat is manifested by sore throat, pain, and swelling). The incubation period is the interval between the entrance of a pathogen into the body and the appearance of the first symptoms. The prodromal stage is the interval from the onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms (such as a low-grade fever or fatigue) to more specific symptoms. Convalescence is the interval in which acute symptoms of infection disappear.

10

The nurse is teaching a group of nursing students about the normal defense mechanisms of the body against infections. Which statements are true about the skin as a primary defense against infections? Select all that apply.

1 It provides a barrier to microorganisms.

2 It helps in removing organisms when they adhere to outer layers of the skin.

3 It contains fatty acids that have an antibacterial action.

4 It helps in washing away particles containing microorganisms.

5 It contains microbial inhibitors.

The multilayered surface of the skin acts as a barrier against microorganisms. The periodic shedding of outer layers of the skin helps in removing organisms that adhere to the outer layers of the skin. The sebum secreted from the skin glands contains fatty acids that have antibacterial action. The skin does not help in washing away particles containing microorganisms or have microbial-inhibiting action. Saliva in the oral cavity helps to perform these actions.

11

In which order does the chain of infection cycle occur chronologically?

1. Infectious agent
2. Reservoir
3. Portal to exit
4. Mode of transmission
5. Portal to entry
6. Host

12

A patient who underwent bariatric surgery complains of serous exudate at the site of surgery. The primary health care provider diagnoses the patient with a health care–associated infection. Which microorganisms can cause exogenous infections? Select all that apply.

1 Yeast
2 Aspergillus
3 Streptococcus
4 Staphylococcus
5 Clostridium tetani

Microorganisms responsible for exogenous infections include Aspergillus and Clostridium tetani. Endogenous infections occur when the body’s normal floras are altered. Yeast, streptococci,and staphylococci can cause endogenous infections.

13

A patient reporting itching and tingling arrives at the hospital. The nurse suspects a herpes simplex infection and keeps the patient in an isolation room. What would be the patient’s stage of infection?

The prodromal stage is the interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms. During this stage, microorganisms grow and multiply and the patient may be capable of spreading the disease to others. Therefore, the patient may be in an isolation room to reduce the spread of infection. The illness stage is the interval when a patient manifests signs and symptoms that are specific to a type of infection. The convalescence stage is the interval when acute symptoms of an infection disappear. The incubation period is the first stage of the infection process; it is the Interval between the entrance of the pathogen into the body and the appearance of the first symptoms.

14

What would be the mode of transmission if a patient suspected of having tuberculosis is not isolated? Select all that apply.

If a patient is not isolated, he or she may spread a tuberculosis infection through droplet nuclei and airborne particles during coughing, sneezing and talking. Infections such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are transmitted through indirect contact, such as needles. Malaria may be transmitted through vectors such as mosquitoes. Vehicles such as blood may transmit infection such hepatitis B, HIV, and hepatitis C.

15

Which microorganism exits through a man’s urethral meatus during sexual contact?

Neisseria gonorrhea exits through a man’s urethral meatus or a woman’s vaginal canal during sexual contact.

(Ebolavirus is transmitted through blood or body fluids. Clostridium difficile causes antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Legionella pneumophila grows only at certain temperatures.)

16

A 65-year-old patient is undergoing treatment for chronic bronchitis and develops a health care-associated exogenous infection. What could be the reason for this condition?

Exogenous infections are caused by microorganisms found outside the individual such as Aspergillus, Salmonella and Clostridium tetani. Therefore, a patient infected with Aspergillus is considered to have an exogenous infection.

Endogenous infections are caused by organisms such as Streptococci or Enterococci. Infections caused by a bronchoscopy or the administration of broad spectrum antibiotics are iatrogenic infections.

17

Which is a mode of transmission for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection?

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are transmitted through vehicles such as blood and body fluids. Vectors such as mosquitoes transmit malaria. Infections such as Ebola and tuberculosis are transmitted by droplet nuclei. Infections such as influenza, Ebola, and tuberculosis are airborne.

18

A patient who is on antibiotic therapy visits the primary health care provider with severe diarrhea. The primary health care provider diagnoses the patient with antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Which microorganism causes antibiotic-induced diarrhea?

Clostridium difficile is a common spore-forming bacterium that causes antibiotic-induced diarrhea.

(Bacteroides fragilis are normal flora of the human colon that may cause infections when displaced into the bloodstream or tissues near the site of injury or surgery. Staphylococcus aureus can cause wound infection and pneumonia. Legionella pneumophila can grow in 25-degree to 42-degree water. This microorganism may not cause antibiotic-induced diarrhea. )

19

Which disease can be transmitted when a nurse is drawing blood from a patient with an infection?

Vehicles such as blood may transmit the hepatitis B virus.

(Chickenpox, scarlet fever, and tuberculosis can be transmitted through the air or droplet nuclei.)

20

Which disease is a communicable disease that can be asymptomatic?

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a communicable disease that can be asymptomatic.

(Viral meningitis and pneumonia have a low or no risk for transmission and are not considered communicable diseases. Tuberculosis is a communicable and symptomatic disease.)

21

A registered nurse is teaching a student nurse about the various stages of infections. Which statement made by the student nurse indicates a need for additional teaching?

1. "The incubation period for mumps is 1 to 5 days."
2 "The acute symptoms of malaria will disappear during the convalescence stage."
3 "Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus causes a sore throat, pain, and swelling at the illness stage."
4 "Herpes simplex at the prodromal stage begins with itching at the site before the lesion appears."

The average incubation period for mumps is 16 to 18 days, but can range from 12-25 days.

The recovery of the patient is noticed during the convalescence stage of malaria. Acute infections are noticed during the illness stage.

Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus causes strep throat manifested by a sore throat, pain, and swelling.

Herpetic whitlow is the infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The nonspecific signs and symptoms, such as itching and tingling, develop during the prodromal stage at the site before the appearance of the lesions.

22

Lab Test

Normal Neutrophil levels (55%-70%)

In an older adult, what does decreased amounts of Neutrophils indicate?

Decreased levels of Neutrophils indicates an overwhelming bacterial infection

23

Definition of Term:

Pus forming infection

Term

Suppurative